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TNPSC Free Notes History – Reforms in Tamil Nadu

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Reforms in Tamil Nadu

 The reform movements of north India had its own impact on Tamil Nadu.
 Brahmo Samaj and Arya Samaj had their branches in Tamil Nadu.
 Keshab Chandra Sen visited Madras and lectured here, but Tamil Nadu also saw its own
reform movements.
Ramalinga Swamigal (1823–1874)
 Popularly known as Vallalar, Ramalinga Swamigal or Ramalinga Adigal was born in a
modest family in Marudhur, a village near Chidambaram in 1823.
 He played a prominent role in the socio-religious reform movement in Tamil Nadu
during the 19 th century.
 He spent his young age in Chennai.
 Despite having no formal education, he gained an immense scholarship.
 Inspired by the Saiva Thevaram and Thiruvasagam hymns, he began to compose moving
poems on his own.
 Being spiritual, his songs and works were a harmonious blend of social reforms and
religious sentiments.
 He tried his best to find a solution to the social evils by inculcating spiritual awareness.

 Ramalinga Adigal led to the unity and solidarity of Tamils. In that sense alone, he
favoured the creation of a casteless society to be guided by God, whom he believed to
be in the form of ‘Arul Perum Jothi’.
 In his time, Saiva religion was in the grip of Saiva monasteries such as those at
Thiruvaduthurai, Dharumapuram, and Thiruppanandal.
 Ramalinga Swamigal’s poems expressed radical ideas and condemned bigotry and
 He founded the Sathya Gnana Sabha (hall of true wisdom forum) in 1872 to organize his
followers and ensuring it was entirely secular.
 This brought him into conflict with established Saivite orders, and matters came to a
head when his followers published his poems under the title of Thiruvarutpa (Songs of
Grace) in 1867.
 Orthodox Saivites under the Sri Lankan reformer Arumuga Navalar criticised this as
blasphemous and launched a tract war.
 He condemned the inequalities based on birth and promoted universal love and
 He showed his compassion and mercy on all living beings, including plants. This he called
Jeevakarunya (Mercy to life)
 That is why he said, “Vaadiya Payirai Kandapodhellam Vaadinaen”.
 He emphasised on being vegetarian.
 He established the Samarasa Vedha Sanmarga Sangam in 1865 and it was renamed
“Samarasa Suddha Sanmarga Satya Sanga” which means “Society for Pure Truth in
Universal self-hood”.
 He believed that hunger and poverty are the evils of society.
 He advocated that feeding the poor is the highest form of worship.
 He established a free feeding house Sathya Dharma Salai for everyone irrespective of
caste at Vadalur (1867), in the wake of a terrible famine in south India in 1866.
 On the inaugural day, he lit the fire of the stone stove with a declaration that the fire is
ever alive and the needy shall be fed forever.
 As per the declaration, it provides food to everyone irrespective of caste and creed
throughout the year.
 One of the primary teachings of Vallalar is ‘Service to mankind is the path of Moksha’.
 God is the personification of mercy and knowledge.
 The path of compassion and mercy are the only path to God.
 But ultimately, Ramalinga Swamigal’s contribution was recognised and his writings
inspired universal ideas and undermined sectarianism in the Saiva religion.
Buddhist Revivalism and Iyotheethoss Pandithar

 Buddhism had been practically wiped out in the Tamil country by the beginning of the
second millennium.
 Towards the end of the nineteenth century, there was a revival of Buddhism.
 The publication of the complete edition of Jeevaka Chintamani (1887) and Manimekalai
(1898) were landmarks, but the most important figure was Iyotheethoss Pandithar.
 Pandithar Iyothee Thassar (1845–1914) was a radical Tamil scholar, writer, Siddha
medicine practitioner, journalist and socio-political activist.
 Born in Chennai, he was fluent in Tamil, English, Sanskrit, and Pali languages.
 He was disappointed with the Hindu dharma, which served as the basis for propagating
and validating caste in Hindu society.
 In the 1890s, he began a movement among the Adi Dravidars, arguing that they were
the original Buddhists who had been consigned to ‘untouchability’ due to their
opposition to Vedic Brahminism.
 He re-read classical Tamil and other texts to make his case.
 He also encouraged the conversion to Buddhism.
 Influenced by the Theosophist organiser, Colonel H.S. Olcott, went to Sri Lanka in 1898
and converted to Buddhism.
 In the same year, he founded the Sakya Buddhist Society at Madras to construct rational
religious philosophy through Buddhist religion.
 His policy was followed by a large number of people in the northern parts of Tamil
Nadu. Many of the workers who worked in the Kolar gold field followed his policy.
 In this movement, M. Singavelu and Prof P. Lakshmi Narasu also played an important
 He campaigned for social justice and worked for the emancipation of the
“untouchables” from the caste clutches.
 He worked for the construction of a casteless identity and castigated caste hegemony
and untouchability.
 He considered education as an important tool for empowerment and became the
driving force behind the establishment of several schools for the “untouchables” in
Tamil Nadu.
 He founded the Advaidananda Sabha to raise the voice for the temple entry of the
 In 1882, John Rathinam and Iyothee Thassar established a movement called, Dravida
Kazhagam and launched a magazine called Dravida Pandian in 1885.
 He founded the Dravida Mahajana Sabha in 1891 and organised the First Conference of
the association at Nilgiris.
 He started a weekly journal, Oru Paisa Tamilan, in 1907 and published it until his demise
in 1914.


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