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TNPSC Free Notes History-Pallava’s society and economic life

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Pallava’s society and economic life

Revenue and Taxation
 Land grants recorded mainly on copper plates provide detailed information on land
revenues and taxation.
 Revenue came almost exclusively from rural sources.
 Two categories of taxes were levied on the village. The land revenue paid by the
cultivator to the state varied from 1/6 th to 1/10 th of the produce, and was collected by
the village and paid to the state collector.
 In the second category were local taxes, also collected in the village but utilized for
services in the village itself.
 The tax money was spent for repairing irrigation works, illuminating the temple, etc.
 When the state land tax was inadequate, the revenue was supplemented by additional
taxes on draught cattle, toddy-drawers, marriage-parties, potters, goldsmiths,
washermen, textile-manufacturers, weavers, brokers, letter-carriers, and the makers of
 The loot and booty obtained in war added to the revenue of the state.
 Pallava considered war to be very important and a series of sculptures depicting the
important events connected with the reign of Nandivarma Pallava, notably Pallava
troops attacking a fort are seen in the Vaikunta Perumal temple at Kanchipuram.
Pallava Army
 Much of the state revenue went to maintain the army.
 The king maintained a standing army under his direct control.
 The army consisted of foot-soldiers, cavalry and a small force of elephants.
 Cavalry, though effective, was expensive, as horses had to be imported.
 The Pallavas developed a navy and built dockyards at Mamallapuram and

 Kanchipuram was an important trading centre in the Pallava period.
 The merchants had to obtain license to market their goods.
 Barter system generally prevailed but later the Pallavas issued gold and silver coins.
 Merchants had their own organizations such as Manigramam.
 In foreign trade, spices, cotton textiles, precious stones and medicinal plants were
exported to Java, Sumatra, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, China and Burma.
 Mamallapuram was an important seaport.

Trade Guilds

 Traders founded guilds and called themselves as sudesi, nanadesi, ainurruvar and
 Their main guild functioned at Aihole.
 Foreign merchants were known as Nanadesi.
 The chief of this guild is registered in the inscriptions as pattanswamy, pattnakilar, and
 Its members were known as ayyavole-parameswariyar.

Maritime Trade
 Unlike in the Ganges plain, where large areas were available for cultivation, the regions
controlled by the Pallavas and the Chalukyas commanded a limited income from land.
 Mercantile activity had not developed sufficiently to make a substantial contribution to
the economy.
 The Pallavas had maritime trade with south-east Asia, whereby now there were three
major kingdoms: Kambuja (Cambodia), Champa (Annam), and Srivijaya (the southern
Malaya peninsula and Sumatra).
 On the west coast, the initiative in the trade with the West was gradually passing into
the hands of the foreign traders settled along the coast, mainly Arabs.
 Most scholars agree that Aryanisation or the northern influence on the south picked up
pace during the Pallava period.
 The society divided into Brahmins, Kshyatrias, Vaishyas, and Sudras.
 Some other Sub castes are divided based on occupation.
 Brahmins as learned scholars in literature, astronomy, law and others functioned as the
royal counsellors.
 They were exempted from paying taxes and capital punishment.
 Land grants given to Brahmins were called as Brahmadeya.
 The next important social group which ruled the state was called sat-kshatryas.
 Not all the kshatryas were of warring groups; some of them were involved in trading as
 Next social group was Vaishyas they are trading group, maintained warriors for
protection and founded trade guilds.
 Sudras the people who were at the bottom of the society worked in agriculture, animal
husbandry, and handicraft works.
 Buddhism & Jainism lost its appeal as Saiva Nayanmars & Vainava Aazhvalrs grow


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