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TNPSC Free Notes History- Pallava Culture and Literature

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Pallava Culture and Literature

 Monasteries continued to be the nucleus of the Buddhist educational system and were
located in the region of Kanchi, and the valleys of the Krishna and the Godavari rivers.
 Sanskrit was the recognized medium and was also the official language at the court,
which led to its adoption in literary circles.
 The Pallavas were great patrons of learning. Their capital Kanchi was an ancient centre
of learning.
 The Ghatikaat Kanchi was popular and it attracted students from all parts of India and
 Chinese Traveller Hiuen Tsang stayed in Kanchi.
 Literature, Grammar, Astrology, Painting, Medicine are some important subjects.
 Their writing is based on own type of southern Brahmi script.
 In the eighth century, the mathas(mutts) became popular.
 This was a combination of a rest house, a feeding-centre, and an education centre,
which indirectly brought publicity to the particular sect with which it was associated.

Bhakti movements
 Bhakti movements started early in the 6 th and 7 th Century CE in South India.
 It describes the social and cultural life of people.
 Bakthi denotes Personal devotion to god.
 Azhwars and Nayanmars came from different strata of Tamil society, such as artisans
and cultivators. They lived in Pallava period.
 Bakthi movement established to meet the challenges posed by Buddhism and Jainism.
 And also to revive and spread Saivism and Vaishnavism.

 Foremost god of Saivism was Lord Shiva. The saints of Saivism are Nayanmars.
 There are 63 Nayanmars.
 The prominent Saiva poets include Thirunavukarasar, Thirugnanasamandhar, Sundarar
composed Thevaram.

 Manickavasagar composed Thiruvasagam.
 These include female saints like Andal. Andal is one among the 12 Azhwars.
 The poet Karaikkal Ammaiyar (Tilakawathi), and the Pandya queen Mangayarkkarasiyar
were prominent female Nayanmar saints.
 Branches of Saivism are Kalamukhas and Pasupathas.
 The foremost God of Vaishnavam is Lord Vishnu. The saints of Vaishnavam are Azhwars.
 There are 12 Azhwars.
 The prominent Azhwars saint includes
 Poigai Azhwar
 Pey Azhwar
 Bhudhath Azhwar who composed Naanmugan Thiruvanthathi.
 Thirumazhisai Azhwar, Nam Azhvar, Andal are helped to improve the growth of
Vaishnavam through literature.
 Azhwars composed moving hymns addressed to Vishnu. They were compiled in the
Nalayira Divviya prabandham by Nadamuni, at the end of the ninth century.
 They contribute a lot for the development of Tamil Literature.
 Women were respected and Queens were involved in the Administration.
 Pallavas are the great patronage of Tamil and Sanskrit literature.
 Mahendravarman I composed Mathavilasa Prahasanam and Bagavatha Ajikkiyamin in
 Dandin of Kanchipuram, author of the great treatise on rhetoric Kavyadarsa, seems to
have stayed in Pallava court for some time.
 Bharavi, a Sanskrit scholar visited Kanchipuram.
 Madurai is a Learning and Cultural centre in a period of Pallavas.
Tamil literature and Growth
 Bharatavenba composed by Bharatham Paadiya Perundhevanar.
 Kalladanar composed Kalladam a Tamil grammar work.
 The author of Nandikalambagam was not known. It provides a detailed information
about Nandivarman III.

 Azhwars and Nayanmars contributed many works to Tamil literature.
Weights and Measures
1. Uzhavu
2. Nivarthanam
3. Pattiga
4. Hala are some of the Land measurement units.
 Plough is used to measure the land.
 Chudu nazhi used for Paddy & Rice measurement.
 Pidi is the smallest unit in Pallava administration.
 Aazhakku, Uzhakku, Uri, Nazhi is used for milk, ghee, oil measurement.
 Kazhanju & Manjadi are used for the Gold measurement.
Pallava Art & Architecture
 It was a great age of temple building.
 They are the Pioneers of South Indian Art & Architecture and introduced Stone
architecture in Tamil country.
 The Pallavas introduced the art of excavating temples from the rock.
 In fact, the Dravidian style of temple architecture began with the Pallava rule.
 It was a gradual evolution starting from the cave temples to monolithic rathas and
culminated in structural temples.
 They used Granite for building temples & Carving Sculptures.
 The development of temple architecture under the Pallavas can be seen in
Four stages.
 They are
 Rock Cut Temples – Mahendravarman 1
 Monolithic Rathas – Narasimhavarman 1
 Structural Temples – Narasimhavarman 2
Rock Cut Temples
 Mahendravarman I is credited with the introduction of rock-cut temples in the Pallava
 The inscription at the rock-cut temple hails him as Vichitrachitta for constructing the
temple without wood, brick, mortar or metal.

 The Rock Cut Temples consist of beautiful sculptures and walls.
 This style of Pallava temples are seen at places like Mandagappattu, Mahendravadi,
Mamandur, Dalavanur, Tiruchirappalli, Vallam, Siyamangalam and Tirukalukkunram.

Monolithic Rathas
 The second stage of Pallava architecture is represented by the monolithic
Rathas and Mandapas found at Mamallapuram.
 Narasimhavarman-I took the credit for these wonderful architectural monuments.
 The five Rathas, popularly called as the Panchapandava Rathas, signifies five different
styles of temple architecture.
 The mandapas contain beautiful sculptures on its walls. The most popular of these
mandapas are,
 Mahishasuramardhini Mandapam
 Tirumurthi Mandapam
 Varaha Madapam.
 The Pallavas had also contributed to the development of sculpture. Apart from the
sculptures found in the temples, the ‘Open Art Gallery’ at Mamallapuram remains an
important monument bearing the sculptural beauty of this period.
 The Descent of the Ganges or the Penance of Arjuna is called a fresco painting in stone.
 The minute details as well as the theme of these sculptures such as the figures of lice-
picking monkey, elephants of huge size and the figure of the ‘ascetic cat’ standing erect
remain the proof for the talent of the sculptor.
 The monolithic rathas are known as the Panchapandava Rathas. The most exquisite of
the five is the Dharmaraja Ratha, with a three-storied vimana.
 Draupadi Ratha is the smallest and stylish of all Panchapandava Rathas.
 Arjun Ratha stands on the same block of stone as the Draupadi Ratha and shows a
square structure and similar to Dharamaraja Ratha.
 Bhima Ratha is the largest structure which stands on a rectangular platform and has a
circular shape.
 Nakula-Sahadeva Ratha shows a simple design and there are no carvings on this temple.
Structural Temples
 In the next stage, Rajasimha introduced the structural temples.
 These temples were built by using soft sand rocks.
 The Structural temples are of two styles known as the

 Rajasimha (690 to 800 AD)
 Nandivarman (800 to 900 AD).
 The Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi and the Shore temple at Mamallapuram remain the
finest examples of the early structural temples of the Pallavas.
 The Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi is the greatest architectural masterpiece of the
Pallava art.
 It has a simple layout with a tower or vimana which rises in a pyramidal shape at the
center of the complex.
 The temple also has beautiful sculptures of Mattavilasa prahasanam on the walls.
 One of the examples of the Nandivarman temple style is the Vaikunta Perumal
Temple at Kanchipuram.
 This style of Nandivarman temples are seen at places like Kanchipuram, Panamalai,
Kooram, Tiruthani, Gudimallam.
Fine Arts
 Music, dance and painting had also developed under the patronage of the Pallavas.
 The Mamandur inscription contains a note on the notation of vocal music.
 The Kudumianmalai inscription referred to musical notes and instruments.
 The sculptures of this period depict many dancing postures.
 The Sittannavasal paintings belonged to this period.
 The commentary called Dakshinchitra was compiled during the reign of
Mahendravarman I, who had the title Chittirakkarapuli.


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