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TNPSC Free Notes History- Nayaks rule in Tamil Nadu

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Nayaks rule in Tamil Nadu

 The expansion of Vijayanagar empire finally brought the Nayak rule in Tamil Nadu.
Krishnadeva Raya popularized the Nayak rule in Tamil Nadu.
 200 Nayaks are under the control of Achyutharaya.
 The Nayaks were the agents of the Vijayanagar rulers, they ruled from Madurai, Tanjore,
Vellore and Senji.
 Nayaks ascended their independence through Battle of Talikota.
 Among them, Madurai and Tanjore Nayaks are more important.
Sources & Nayakar System
 Nayaks made great contribution for the growth of literature. There is an epigraphical
and literary works are related to history and socio-culture of Nayaks.
 Nayaks administration was recorded by Fernando Nuniz, Domingo Paes and so on.
 The rulers of the kingdom were known as Nayaks. They acted as kings. The King is the
owner of the entire land.
 Lands are granted to military commanders.

 The entire Nayakar system was administered in the name of the King.
Nayaks of Madurai
Vishwanatha Nayak was the founder of the Nayakship in Madurai. He was the son of
Nagama Nayakar.
Vishwanatha Nayak [1529-1564]
 Vishwanatha Nayak was appointed as the Viceroy of Madurai by Krishnadeva Raya in
 He defeated many local rulers with his Dalavoy Ariyanathar.
 He introduced new administrative arrangements with the assistance of his minister
Ariyanathar, known as “Palayakar system” and there were 72 palayams.
 Poligars were in charge of military, police and revenue administration.
 Kumbam, Gudalor, Chola, and some Pandya dominion were under the control of
 The Nayaks were the great patrons of art and architecture. Srirangam temple, Rock-cut
temples in Trichy and Tirunelveli are some important temples in this period.
Krishnappa Nayak I (1564- 1572) & Virappa Nayak (1572 – 1595)
 Krishnappa Nayak was the next ruler. He was the son and successor of Vishwanatha
 The first event of his reign was that he participated in the battle of Talikota. Krishnappa
Nayak I sent an army under the command of Ariyanathan to Talikota to face the Muslim
 He had a great fascination towards arts. The temple constructed at Krishnapuram was
attractive by its architectural excellence.
 Virappa Nayaka was the next ruler.
 Improvements in Trichinopoly fort, the construction of fort at Aruppukottai, the
construction of the walls of defence around the Chidambaram temple and the grant of
many agraharas in charity to Brahmins were his major achievements.
 He also renovated Chidambaram temple and Madurai Meenakshi temple.
Successors of Virappa Nayak
 Krishnappa Nayak II
 Muthukrishnappa Nayak
 Muthu Virappa Nayak I

Thirumalai Nayak [1623-1659]
 He was considered to be the most prominent among the Nayaks of Madurai.
 After few years of his reign, he transferred the capital from Trichy to Madurai, mainly
due to defence and administrative convenience. The predecessors of Tirumalai were
very loyal to the Vijayanagar rulers. But Tirumalai decided to get aloof from the
domination of Vijayanagar.
 Tirunelveli, Coimbatore, Tiruvananthapuram regions are under his control.
 Madurai is known as the City of Festivals [many festivals were conducted].
 He built Nayakar Mahal, Pudhu Mandapam, Raja Gopuram and Theppakulam.
 Thirumalai Nayak attacked Mysore army and this event is termed as “War of Noses”.
Rani Mangammal [1689-1706]
 She is a good administrator and a brave general.
 She diplomatically prevented the Mysore and Mughal invasions.
 During her period, irrigation tanks were renovated and gave importance to agricultural
 Wells, canals, roads, mandapas, temples are also constructed.
Vijayaranga Chokkanadhar [1706-1732] & Meenakshi [1732-1739]
 Vijayaranga Chokkanathar was the grandson of Rani Mangammal.
 His reign witnessed the suffering in the country due to foreign, invasion and natural
calamities. So the kingdom moved towards disruption and run, during his reign.
 As Vijayaranga Chokkanatha died without issue, his wife Meenakshi assumed power and
adopted Vijaya Kumara, the son of Bangaru Tirumala Vijayakumara.
 Bangaru, father of Vijayakumara conspired against Meenakshi to occupy the throne. So,
Meenakshi sought Chanda Sahib’s help, the Nawab of Carnatic and promised to offer a
crore of rupees.
 Chanda Sahib defeated Bangaru and saved Meenakshi.
 Later Chanda Sahib showed his true colour and threw off the promises and imprisoned
Meenakshi in her palace at Trichy.
 Meenakshi was poisoned to death; Madurai Nayak came under the control of Arcot
Nayaks Of Tanjore
 Tanjore formed a part of the Vijayanagar empire.

 Thimmappa Nayak was in charge of Tanjore. He was succeeded by his son Sevappa
Sevappa Nayak (1532-1580)
 Sevappa Nayak was the founder of the independent Nayak system of Tanjore.
 He paid attention to the maintenance of Hindu temples. He gave permission to the
Portuguese to settle at Nagapattinam and gave 10 veli of land to the Mulavur Temple.
 He repaired Shivaganga Lake which was later called Sevappaneri.
 He gave grants to Thiruvannamalai and Virudhachalam temples.
Achutappa Nayak (1580-1600)
 He built Mahamaham tank of Kumbakonam and many temples.
 He gave a diamond throne to Lord Ranganatha and made endowments to the
Rameshwaram temple.
 He repaired the banks of river Kaveri and improved agriculture.
Ragunatha Nayak (1600-1634)
 He was a great patron of art and letters.
 He was also a poet and wrote Rukmani Parinayam, Parijata Pushpakaranam and
Ramayanam in Telugu.
 He won over the Nayaks of Senji, Madurai and the Portuguese of Jaffna. He supported
European trade.
 His reign marked the growth of Sanskrit and Telugu.
Vijayaragava Nayak (1633-1637)
 He was the last ruler of Nayak kingdom.
 He was a Telugu scholar and wrote Raghunatha Bhuddhayam.
 Golkonda Sultan destroyed Tanjore.
 Chokkanatha Nayak of Madurai invaded and killed Vijayaragava Nayak and captured
 Thus Nayak rule came to an end in 1673 A.D.
Nayaks of Gingee
 The region between Palar and Coleroon formed the Nayak kingdom of Senji.
 The Nayaks of Senji were related to the royal house of Vijayanagar.

 Their original home was Maninagapuram in North India and they migrated to the south
and settled there.
Verrappa Nayak (1526-1541)
 He was appointed by Krishnadevaraya.
 He was succeeded by Krishnappa Nayak II.
 He was the real founder of the Nayak rule in Senji.
 He contributed to Tirukoyilur temple.
Krishnappa Nayak II
 Krishnappa Nayak II was the most important ruler of Senji. He divided his kingdom into
various divisions.
 Each division was ruled by his officers. He built towns for the settlement of the people.
He promoted cultivation. He maintained a powerful army.
 He erected a town called ‘Krishnapattinam” on the banks of the river Vellar.
 He was tolerant of all religions. He gave grants to Jesuits for building churches.
 He permitted Jains to erect a shrine at Sithamur and Saivites to build a temple at
Tindivanam. He rebuilt the Govindaraja shrine at Chidambaram.
 His general Venkata dug out a large tank called Chennasagaram for promoting irrigation.
 The successors of Krishnappa Nayak II were weak and inefficient. Bijapur Sultan (Ali Adil
Shah) sent Mir Jumla to capture Senji in 1648. He captured Senji and appointed Nasir
Khan as its governor. In 1648, Shivaji captured Senji.
 After Shivaji, it came under the Rajput general Swaroop Singh, who acted as a Mughal
vassal and paid annual tribute.
 He was succeeded by his son Raja Desingh. Sadat Ullah khan, the ruler of arcot invaded,
defeated and killed Raja Desingh and annexed Senji.
 Raja Desingh’s wife committed Sati. As a mark of her remembrance, (Rani) the town of
Ranipet was created.
 Thus the Nayak’s rule of Senji came to an end.
Nayaks of Vellore
 Established by Chinna Nayak Pommar.
 He was succeeded by Linga Nayak.
 Chennappa Nayak ruled Chennapattinam (Chennai).
 They ruled for a short period.
Social and economic conditions

 The Nayaks upheld varnasrama system in the society.
 Caste system remained rigid. Brahmins occupied the high position, valankai and idankai
struggle continued.
 Villagers lived in ignorance and poverty. The nayaks occupied mostly the dry areas
except Kaveri, Vaigai and Thamiraparani areas. Agrarian economy continued.
 Agriculturalists depended on rains. Tanks, wells, canals and rivers were the main source
for irrigation.
 Textile industries – Kancheepuram, Coimbatore, Madurai.
 Exports- rice, sugar, masala, cotton, silk, millets.
 Imports- gold, silver, copper, tin, brass, lead.
Art and architecture
 Many temples were renovated.
 Many temples received the patronage of Nayaks, such as
 Krishnapuram Temple – Tirunelveli
 Nellaiappar Temple – Tirunelveli
 Kasi Viswanatha Temple – Tenkasi
 Ramanathapuram Temple – Rameshwaram
 Nayak architecture includes long corridors, carved pillars, outdoor temple halls.
 Painting was improved.
 Mandapam ceilings and side walls were painted.
 Themes were mostly stories from Ramayana and Mahabharata.
 Thirumalai Nayaks – Chidambarapuranam
 Paranjothiar – Chidambarapattial
 Haridasa – Irusamaya Vilakkam
 Umarupulavar – Seerapuranam
 Kumaraguruparar – Kandar Kali Venba
 Thiruvenkatam – Meyngnana Vilakkam


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