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TNPSC Free Notes History- Maratha Rule in Tamilnadu

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Maratha Rule in Tamilnadu

Shivaji’s Southern Conquests
 Under the dynamic leadership of Shivaji, Marathas posed a strong challenge to Mughal
power during the 1670s. By the middle of the 18 th century, they had succeeded in
displacing Mughal power in Central India.
 The Nayak rule ended in 1674 in Thanjavur, when the Maratha General Venkoji (half-
brother of Shivaji) leading the Bijapur forces invaded Thanjavur and succeeded in
establishing the Maratha rule in the Tamil region.
 When Shivaji invaded the Carnatic in 1677, he removed Venkoji and placed his half-
brother Santaji on the throne.
 But Venkoji recaptured Thanjavur and, after his death, his son Shahji became the ruler
of Thanjavur kingdom.
Venkoji (1675 – 1684)
 The Nayak of Madurai invaded the kingdom of Thanjavur under the rule of
the Thanjavur Nayaks.
 The Nayak placed his younger brother Alagiri Nayak on the throne of Thanjavur.

 This was resented by Rayasam Venkanna, a high-ranking official in the court of
Thanjavur who supported the cause of Chengamala Dasu, son of Vijayaraghava, the late
Nayak of Thanjavur.
 The rivalry between the Nayaks of Madurai and Thanjavur finally led to the eclipse of
Nayak rule of Thanjavur in 1673.
 He requested help from the Ali Adil Shahi II of Bijapur along with the other
 Troops from Bijapur, led by the Maratha general Venkoji, defeated the Nayak of
Madurai and captured Thanjavur.
 During the last years of his reign, Venkoji also allied with Chokkanatha of Madurai to
repulse an invasion from Mysore.
 Fertile lands were taken away from the agriculture farmers and they became landless
and suffered heavily because of heavy taxes, floods and famine.
Shahji I (1684 – 1712)
 Venkoji recaptured Thanjavur and, after his death, his son Shahji became the ruler of
Thanjavur kingdom.
 During his periods, hospitals were built for poor people and courts for civil and criminal
proceedings were built.
 Shahji I patronized learning and promoted literature.
 Chandra Shekara Vilasa, Shabderanava Samanvaya, Shringara Manjari are some of the
Tamil drama works belonging to this period.
Serfoji I (1712 – 1728)
 Shaji had no heir to succeed. So his brother Serfoji I became the next ruler and remained
in power for sixteen years (1712-1728).
 The country was split up into three parts: one part was annexed by Thanjavur while
the Zamindaris of  Sivaganga  and  Ramnad  were created out of the other two.
 The reign of Serfoji I was known for literary works of considerable significance.
 Saraswathi Mahal library established during the 16th century by Nayakas of Tanjavur
and has on display, a rare collection of  palm leaf manuscripts and paper written
in Tamil and Sanskrit and a few other languauges.
 There are many Marathi, Sanskrit, Persian and Urdu manuscripts (mostly of 19th
century) also within the collection.
 There were many collections such as Vedanta, Kaviya, Grammar, Music, Dance,
Astronomy, Medicine and Architecture. With huge collections of literature and other
sources, Saraswathi Mahal became the centre of learning and research institute.
Serfoji II

 Serfoji II was a remarkable ruler. He was educated by the German Christian missionary
Friedrich Schwartz.
 Serfoji II was the last ruler of the Bhonsle dynasty of the Maratha principality of
 Serfoji’s modernising projects included the establishment of a printing press (the first
press for Marathi and Sanskrit) and enrichment of the Saraswati Mahal Library.
 His most innovative project, however, was the establishment of free modern public
schools run by his court, for instruction in English and the vernacular languages.
 Serfoji’s most striking initiative was the founding and management of free elementary
and secondary schools for orphans and the poor in Thanjavur city and other adjacent
 In 1822, at the free school in Muktambal Chattiram the King’s favourite alms-house was
established in 1803. 15 teachers taught a total of 464 students of diverse castes, in two
classes, in the morning and the evening.
 Serfoji II established Dhanvantari Mahal, a research institution that produced herbal
medicine for humans and animals. Maintaining case-sheets of patients was introduced.
 Serfoji II was a patron of traditional Indian arts like dance and music. He authored
Kumarasambhava Champu, Devendra Kuravanji, and Mudra Rakshaschaya.
 He is also credited with popularising the unique Thanjavur style of painting. Serfoji was
interested in painting, gardening, coin-collecting, martial arts and patronized chariot-
racing, hunting and bull-fighting.
 He created the first zoological garden in Tamilnadu in the Thanjavur palace premises.
 Serfoji II died on 7 th March 1832 after almost forty years of his rule. His death was
mourned throughout the kingdom and his funeral procession was attended by more
than 90, 000 people.

 The Marathas of Tanjore ruled the fertile areas of Tamil country from 1676 to 1856.
 For administrative purpose, the Maratha country was divided into Pudukottai,
Mannargudi and Kumbakonam region.
 Each region was divided into Seemai or Mahanam. They were further divided into
 Ministers and officials carried on administration. Dalavoy was the Commander-in-Chief.
 Revenue department was under Dewan and Mirasdar.
 The currencies used during this period were chakram, agoda, panam and pagoda.

 The Maratha Kings contributed much for the development of literature in Sanskrit, Tamil
and Telugu language.
 There were 46 poets in the court of King Shahji. Alluri Kuppanna was a great Telugu poet
in his court. He was respected as Kalidasa of Andhradesa.
 Dramas, kavyas and commentaries were written both in Sanskrit and Telugu languages.
 Tamil poets wrote sthala puranas and commentaries to devotional songs.
Art & Architecture
 The architects of this period were brilliant and monuments were found all over South
 The Saraswathi Mahal, established by king Serfoji II was a unique example for the art
and architecture of the Tanjore Marathas, it was a full-fledged centre of learning, where
research facilities were available on the western model.
 The ancient architecture patterns were followed in the construction of Hindu temples
during this period. They used Islamic tradition such as cylindrical pillars in architechture.
 The Tanjore Marathas built many temples in Chola Nadu.


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