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TNPSC Free Notes History -Imperial Cholas

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Imperial Cholas

 Among the political powers of the Sangam Age, the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas
occupied pre-eminent positions. They were known as Muvendhar (the three kings).
 They were known for the valour and for their patronage of the Tamil language. Many
songs were composed in high praise of their glories.
 After the decline of the Sangam period, the Cholas became feudatories in Uraiyur.

 The Cholas ruled over the Kaveri delta and northern parts of Tamil Nadu.
 They became prominent in the ninth century and established an empire comprising the
major portion of South India. Their capital was Tanjore.
 The river valleys facilitated the expansion of agriculture, leading to the emergence of
powerful kingdoms.
 Changes that overtook Tamizhagam in the intervening period brought about a major
transformation of the region and enabled the emergence of big, long-lasting
monarchical states. The Cholas were one among them.
 The Social structure differed during this period. Alwars and Nayanmars influenced
the Bhakti movement in early medieval South India.
 Records available to us after the Sangam Age show that the Cholas remained as
subordinates to the Pallavas in the Kaveri region.
 The founder of the Imperial Chola line was Vijayalaya. He captured Thanjavur from
Muttaraiyars in 815 A.D. and built a temple for Durga.
 His son Aditya put an end to the Pallava kingdom by defeating Aparajita and annexed
 In the copper plate documents of his successors that are available, the Cholas trace their
ancestry to the Karikala, the most well-known of the Cholas of the Sangam age.
 Parantaka Chola set the tone for the expansion of the territory and broadened the base
of its governance, and Rajaraja I (985–1014), the builder of the most beautiful
Brihadeeswara temple at Thanjavur, and his son Rajendra I (1014–1044), whose naval
operation extended as far as Sri Vijaya, consolidated the advances made by their
predecessors and went on to establish Chola hegemony in peninsular India.
 The inscriptions mainly record the endowments and donations to temples made by
rulers and other individuals. Land transactions and taxes (both collections and
exemptions) form an important part of their content.
 Later-day inscriptions make a mention of the differentiation in society, giving an account
of the castes and sub-castes and thus providing us information on the social structure.
 The important religious works in Tamil include the codification of the Saivite and
Vaishnavite canons.
 The quasi-historical literary works Kalingattupparani and Kulotungancholan Pillai Tamizh
were composed during their reign.
 Muvarula, and Kamba Ramayanam, the great epic, belong to this period. Neminatam,
Viracholiyam and Nannul are noted grammatical works.
 Traditionally, the area under the Chola dynasty in the Tamizh country is known as
Chonadu or Cholanadu.

 Their core kingdom was concentrated in the Kaveri-fed delta called Cholamandalam.
 The Chola kingdom expanded through military conquests to include present-day
Pudukkottai– Ramanathapuram districts and the Kongu country of the present-day
western Tamil Nadu.
 By the 11th century, through invasions, Cholas extended their territory to Tondainadu
or the northern portion of the Tamizh country, Pandinadu or the southern portions of
the Tamizh country, Gangaivadi or portions of southern Karnataka and Malaimandalam,
the Kerala territory.
 The Cholas ventured overseas, conquering the north-eastern parts of Sri Lanka, bringing
it under their control and they called it Mummudi-Cholamandalam.
Parantaka I (907 – 955 CE)
 Parantaka I was one of the important early Chola rulers.
 He defeated the Pandyas and the ruler of Ceylon. But he suffered a defeat at the hands
of the Rashtrakutas in the famous battle of Takkolam.
 Parantaka I was a great builder of temples. He also provided the vimana of the famous
Nataraja temple at Chidambaram with a golden roof.
 The two famous Uttiramerur inscriptions that give a detailed account of the village
administration under the Cholas belong to his reign.
 After a gap of thirty years, the Cholas regained their supremacy under Rajaraja I.
Empire building – next 30 years
 The battle of Takkolam resulted in the death of Rajaditya 1 on the battlefield and the
defeat of the Cholas.
 Gandaraditya was a reluctant monarch and ruled for the next 3 – 6 years. He focussed
more on religious work and not on empire building.
 The Tondaimandalam went under the control of Rashtrakutas.
 Arinjaya Cholan was the third son of Parantaka I and the younger brother
of  Gandaraditya  Chola and he ruled for a very short time (956 – 957).
 Parantaka II’s (957 – 970) attention was towards the growing strength of the Pandyas,
and he ruled with much enemity against Pandiyas & Rashtrakutas in the south.
 Uttama Chola ascended the throne succeeding  Parantaka Chola II and he ruled amicably
the next 15 years (970-985).
Raja Raja I (985 – 1014 CE)
 Rajaraja I is the most celebrated among the Chola kings.

 He engaged in naval expeditions and emerged victorious in the West Coast, Sri Lanka
and conquered the Maldives in the Indian Ocean.
 The defeat of the Chera ruler Bhaskaravarman in the naval battle of Kandalursalai and
the destruction of the Chera navy.
 The defeat of the Pandya ruler, Amarabhujanga and establishment of Chola authority in
the Pandya country.
 The conquest of Gangavadi, Tadigaipadi and Nolambapadi in the Mysore region.
 The invasion of Sri Lanka which was entrusted to his son Rajendra I.
 As the Sri Lankan king Mahinda V fled away from his country, the Cholas annexed
northern Sri Lanka.
 The capital was shifted from Anuradhapura to Polanaruva, where a Shiva temple was
 The Chola victory over the growing power of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani.
Satyasraya was defeated and Rajaraja I captured the Raichur Doab, Banavasi and other
places. Hence the Chola power extended up to the river Tungabadhra.
 The restoration of the Vengi throne to its rulers Saktivarman and Vimaladitya by
defeating the Telugu Chodas. Rajaraja gave his daughter Kundavai in marriage to
 Rajaraja’s last military achievement was a naval expedition against the Maldives islands,
which were conquered.
 Rajaraja I appointed a Tamil chief to govern the annexed regions and ordered to build a
temple. It is locally called Siva Devale (shrine of Siva).
 The Chola official appointed in Sri Lanka built a temple in a place called Mahatitta and
the temple is called Rajarajesvara.
 By these conquests, the extent of the Chola empire under Rajaraja I included the
Pandya, Chera and the Tondaimandalam regions of Tamil Nadu and the Gangavadi,
Nolambapadi and the Telugu Choda territories in the Deccan and the northern part of
Ceylon and the Maldives Islands beyond India.
 Rajaraja assumed a number of titles like Mummidi Chola, Jayankonda and
Sivapadasekara. He was a devout follower of Saivism.
 He completed the construction of the famous Rajarajeswara temple or Brihadeeswara
temple at Tanjore in 1010 A.D. He also helped in the construction of a Buddhist
monastery at Nagapattinam.
Rajendra I (1012 – 1044 CE)
 Rajaraja I appointed his son, Rajendra I, as his heir apparent. For two years, they jointly
ruled the Chola kingdom.

 Rajendra I took part in the military campaigns of his father, attacking the Western
Chalukyas. Consequently, the boundary of the Chola Empire extended up to the
Tungabhadra river.
 When Rajaraja I attacked Madurai, the Pandyas escaped with their crown and royal
jewels and took shelter in Sri Lanka. There upon, Rajendra I conquered Sri Lanka and
confiscated the Pandya crown and other royal belongings.
 Rajendra had demonstrated his military ability by participating in his father’s campaigns.
He continued his father’s policy of aggressive conquests and expansion.
 During the Chola reign, the naval achievements of the Tamils reached its peak. The
Cholas controlled both the Coromandel and Malabar coasts.
 Mahinda V, the king of Sri Lanka attempted to recover from the Cholas, the northern
part of Ceylon. Rajendra defeated him and seized southern Sri Lanka. Thus the whole of
Sri Lanka was made part of the Chola Empire.
 He reasserted the Chola authority over the Chera and Pandya countries.
 He defeated Jayasimha II, the Western Chalukya king and the river Tungabadhra was
recognised as the boundary between the Cholas and Chalukyas.
 His most famous military enterprise was his expedition to north India.
 The Chola army crossed the Ganges by defeating a number of rulers on its way.
 Rajendra defeated Mahipala I of Bengal. To commemorate this successful north-
Indian campaign Rajendra founded the city of Gangaikondacholapuram and constructed
the famous Rajesvaram temple in that city.
 He also excavated a large irrigation tank called Cholagangam on the western side of the
 Another famous venture of Rajendra was his naval expedition to Kadaram or Sri Vijaya.
It is difficult to pin point the real object of the expedition. He assumed the title
 The Chola navy often ventured into the Bay of Bengal for some decades. Rajendra’s
naval operation was directed against Sri Vijaya. Sri Vijaya kingdom (southern Sumatra)
was one of the prominent maritime and commercial states that flourished from 700 BC
to 1300 BC in South-east Asia.
 He gave his daughter Ammangadevi to the Vengi Chalukya prince and further continued
the matrimonial alliance initiated by his father.
 Rajendra I assumed a number of titles, the most famous being Mudikondan,
Gangaikondan, Kadaram Kondan and Pandita Cholan.


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