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TNPSC Free Notes History – Guptas

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.



 In the period from 300 to 700 CE, a classical pattern of an imperial rule evolved, paving
the way for state formation in many regions.
 During this period, the Gupta kingdom emerged as a great power and achieved the
political unification of a large part of the Indian subcontinent.
 It featured a strong central government, bringing many kingdoms under its hegemony.
 Feudalism as an institution began to take root during this period.
 With an effective guild system and overseas trade, the Gupta economy boomed.
 Great works in Sanskrit were produced during this period and a high level of cultural
maturity in fine arts, sculpture and architecture was achieved.
 The living standards of upper classes reached a peak.
 Art, Architecture and literature was flourished.
Guptas organization

Origin of Guptas dynasty
 The Gupta kings seem to have risen from the modest origins.
 The first ruler of the Gupta Empire was Sri Gupta (240–280 CE) who was succeeded by
his son Ghatotkacha (280–319 CE).
 Both Sri Gupta and Ghatotkacha are mentioned as Maharajas in inscriptions.
 The Puranas mention Magadha, Allahabad and Oudh as the Gupta dominions.
Sources of Guptas
 There are plenty of source materials to reconstruct the history of the Gupta period.
 They include literary, epigraphical and numismatic sources.
 The Puranas throw light on the royal genealogy of the Gupta kings.
 Contemporary literary works like the Devichandraguptam and the Mudhrakshasam
written by Visakadatta provide information regarding the rise of the Guptas.
 The Chinese traveler Fahien, who visited India during the reign of Chandragupta II, has
left a valuable account of the social, economic and religious conditions of the Gupta

Literary sources
1. Narada, Vishnu, Brihaspati and Katyayana smritis.
2. Kamandaka’s Nitisara, a work on polity addressed to the king (400 CE)
3. Devichandraguptam and Mudrarakshasam by Vishakadutta provide details about the
rise of the Guptas.
4. Buddhist and Jaina texts
5. Works of Kalidasa
6. Accounts of the Chinese traveller Fahien
Epigraphical Sources
 Mehrauli Iron Pillar inscription – achievements of Chandragupta I.
 Allahabad Pillar inscription – describing Samudragupta’s personality and achievements
in 33 lines composed by Harisena and engraved in Sanskrit and in Nagari script.
Numismatic Sources
 Coins issued by Gupta kings contain legends and figures.
 These gold coins tell us about the titles the Guptas assumed and the Vedic rituals they
Archaeological Sources
 Gold, silver and copper coins issued by Gupta rulers.
 Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta.
 Udayagiri Cave Inscription, Mathura Stone Inscription and Sanchi Stone Inscription of
Chandragupta II.
 Bhitari Pillar Inscription of Skandagupta.
 The Gadhwa Stone Inscription
Chandragupta I
 The founder of the Gupta dynasty was Sri Gupta.
 He was succeeded by Ghatotkacha.
 These two were called Maharajas.
 Much information was not available about their rule.
 The next ruler was Chandragupta I and he was the first to be called Maharajadhiraja
(the great king of kings).
 This title indicates his extensive conquests.
 He strengthened his position by a matrimonial alliance with the Licchavis
 He married Kumaradevi, a princess of that family.

 This added to the power and prestige of the Gupta family.
 The gold coins attributed to Chandragupta bear the images of Chandragupta,
Kumaradevi and the legend ‘Lichchhavayah’.
 Lichchhavi was an old gana–sanga and its territory lay between the Ganges and the
Nepal Terai.
 The Mehrauli Iron Pillar inscription mentions his extensive conquests.
 Chandragupta I is considered to be the founder of the Gupta era which starts with his
accession in A.D. 320.
Samudra gupta (330-380 AD)
 Chandragupta I was succeeded by his son Samudragupta in 335 CE.
 Samudragupta was the greatest ruler of the Gupta dynasty.
 The Prayog Prashasti, composed by Samudragupta’s court poet Harisena was engraved
on Allahabad Pillar.
 This Allahabad Pillar inscription is the main source of information for Samudragupta’s

Expedition of Samudragupta
First campaign
 In the first campaign Samudragupta defeated Achyuta and Nagasena.
 Achyuta was probably a Naga ruler.
 Nagabanar belonged to the Kota family which was ruling over the upper Gangetic valley.
 They were defeated and their states were annexed.
 As a result of this short campaign, Samudragupta had gained complete mastery over the
upper Gangetic valley.

Second campaign
 Samudragupta marched against the South Indian monarchs.
 The Allahabad Pillar inscription mentions that Samudragupta defeated twelve rulers in
his South Indian Expedition.
 They were
1. Mahendra of Kosala
2. Vyaghraraja of Mahakanthara
3. Mantaraja of Kaurala
4. Mahendragiri of Pishtapura
5. Swamidatta of Kottura

6. Damanaof Erandapalla
7. Vishnugupta of Kanchi
8. Nilaraja of Avamukta
9. Hastivarman of Vengi
10. Ugrasena of Palakka
11. Kubera of Devarashtra
12. Dhananjaya of Kushtalapura
 Samudragupta’s policy in South India was different.
 He did not destroy and annex those kingdoms.
 Instead,he defeated the rulers but gave them back their kingdoms.
 He only insisted on them to acknowledge his suzerainty.

Third campaign
 The third stage of Samudragupta’s campaign was to eliminate his remaining north
Indian rivals.
 He fought against nine kings, uprooted them and annexed their territories.
 They were Rudradeva, Matila, Nagadatta, Chandravarman, Ganapathinaga, Nagasena,
Achyuta, Nandin and Balavarman.
 Most of these rulers were members of the Naga family, then ruling over different parts
of north India.
 After these military victories, Samudragupta performed the asvamedha sacrifice.
 He issued gold and silver coins with the legend ‘restorer of the asvamedha’.
 It is because of his military achievements Samudragupta was hailed as ‘Indian

Extent of Samudragupta’s Empire.
 After these conquests, Samudragupta’s rule extended over the upper Gangetic Valley
the greater part of modern Uttar Pradesh a portion of central India and the
southwestern part of Bengal.
 These territories were directly administered by him.
 In the south there were tributary states.
 The Saka and Kushana principalities on the west and north west were within the sphere
of his influence.
 The kingdoms on the east coast of the Deccan, as far as the Pallava Kingdom,
acknowledged his suzerainty.

Estimates of Samudra Gupta
 Samudragupta was a devotee of Vishnu.

 He revived the Vedic practice of performing horse sacrifice to commemorate victories in
wars. He issued gold coins and in one of them, he is portrayed playing harp (veenai).
 Samudragupta was not only a great conqueror but a lover of poetry and music and for
this, he earned the title ‘Kaviraja’.

Chandragupta II
 Chandragupta II ruled for 40 years from CE 375 to 415 CE.
 He came to power after a succession struggle with his brother Rama Gupta.
 He is also known as Vikramaditya.
 With the capital at Pataliputra, Chandragupta II extended the limits of the Gupta Empire
by conquest and matrimonial alliances.
 He married off his daughter Prabhavati to a Vakataka prince, who ruled the strategic
lands of Deccan.


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