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TNPSC Free Notes History – Gupta Sciences

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

                             Gupta Sciences

Mathematics and Astronomy

 The invention of the theory of zero and the consequent evolution of the decimal system
are to be credited to the thinkers of this age.
 In the Surya Siddanta, Aryabhatta (belonging to late fifth and early sixth century CE)
examined the true cause of the solar eclipses.
 In calculation of the size of the earth, he is very close to the modern estimation. He was
the first astronomer to discover that the earth rotates on its own axis. He is also the
author of Aryabhattiyam, which deals with arithmetic, geometry and algebra.
 Varahamihira’s Brihat Samhita (sixth century CE) is an encyclopaedia of astronomy,
physical geography, botany and natural history. His other works are Panch Siddhantika
and Brihat Jataka.
 Brahmagupta (late sixth and early seventh century CE) is author of important works on
mathematics and astronomy, namely Brahmasphuta-siddhanta and Khandakhadyaka.

Medical Sciences
 Metallic preparations for the purpose of medicine and references to the use of mercury
and iron by Varahamihira and others indicate that much progress was made in
 The Navanitakam was a medical work, which is a manual of recipes, formulation and
 Hastyayurveda or the veterinary science authored by Palakapya.

Decline of the Gupta Empire
 The last recognised king of the Gupta line was Vishnugupta who reigned from 540 to
550 CE. Internal fighting and dissensions among the royal family led to its collapse.
 During the reign of a Gupta king, Budhagupta, the Vakataka ruler Narendrasena of
western Deccan, attacked Malwa, Mekala and Kosala. Later on, another Vakataka king
Harishena conquered Malwa and Gujarat from the Guptas.
 During Skanda Gupta’s reign, the grandson of Chandragupta II, the Huns invaded
northwest India. He was successful in repulsing the Huns, but consequently his empire
was drained of financial resources.
 In the sixth century CE, the Huns occupied Malwa, Gujarat, Punjab and Gandhara. As the
Hun invasion weakened the Gupta hold in the country, independent rulers emerged all
over the north like Yasodharman of Malwa, the Maukharis of Uttar Pradesh, the
Maitrakas in Saurashtra and others in Bengal.
 In time, the Gupta Empire came to be restricted to only Magadha. They did not focus on
empire building and military conquests. So, weak rulers along with incessant invasions
from foreign as well as native rulers caused the decline of the Gupta Empire.

 By the beginning of the sixth century, the empire had disintegrated and was ruled by
many regional chieftains.


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