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TNPSC Free Notes History – Findings

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.


    • The Indus valley site of Harappa was first visited by Charles Mason in 1826.
    • Amri by Alexander Burnes in 1831. 
    • The site of Harappa was destroyed for laying the railway line from Lahore to Multan. 
    • The seal from this site reached Alexander Cunningham, the first surveyor of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).
    • Alexander Cunningham visited the site in 1853, 1856 and 1875.
  • Sir John Marshal took over as the Director General of ASI and initiated research at the site.

Archaeological Survey of India

    • The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) was started in 1861 with Alexander Cunningham as Surveyor. 
  • Its headquarters is located in New Delhi.

Railway line

    • In 1856 when engineers laid a railway line connecting Lahore to Karachi, they discovered more burnt bricks. 
  • Without understanding their significance, they used the bricks for laying the rail road.

Sir John Marshall 

  • In 1924 the Director General of ASI, Sir John Marshall, found many common features between Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. He concluded that they were part of a large civilisation.
  • Sir John Marshal played an important role in the development of archaeology in India.
    • Later in the 1940s, Mortimer Wheeler excavated the Harappan sites. 
    • After the partition of the Indian subcontinent, many of the Harappan sites went to Pakistan and thus archaeologists were keen to trace the Harappan sites on the Indian side. 
  • Kalibangan, Lothal, Rakhi Garhi and Dholavira are the Indian sites that have been since excavated. 
  • The explorations and excavations conducted after the 1950s have helped to understand the Harappan Civilisation and its nature.

Time Span of Indus Civilisation

    • Geographical range South Asia
    • Period Bronze Age
    • Time 3300 to1900 BCE (determined using the radiocarbon   dating method)
    • Area 13 lakh sq.km
    • Cities 6 big cities
  • Villages More than 200


Urban Civilization

Harappan civilisation is said to be urban because of the following reasons.

  • Well-conceived town planning
  • Astonishing masonry and architecture
  • Priority for hygiene and public health
  • Standardised weights and measures
  • Solid agricultural and artisanal base



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