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TNPSC Free Notes History – Economic Activities

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Economic Activities 

Introduction : 

  • There was a great progress in all spheres of economic activity such as agriculture, industry and crafts and trade
  • Trade was of the barter type. 
  • The seals and the terracotta models of the Indus valley reveal the use of bullock carts and oxen for land transport and boats and ships for river and sea transport.
  • Bronze and copper vessels are the outstanding examples of the Harappan metal craft. Gold and silver ornaments are found in many places.
  • Pottery remains plain and in some places red and black painted pottery is found


    • Agriculture was an important source of subsistence for the Harappans. 
    • The Harappans cultivated diverse crops such as wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea, sesame and various millets.
    • Agricultural surplus was an important stimulus for a number of developments. 
    • They adopted a double cropping system. 
    • The Harappans used ploughs.
    • They perhaps ploughed the land and then sowed the seeds.
  • Ploughed fields have been found at Kalibangan. 
  • They used both canal and well irrigation.

Animal Domestication 

  • Pastoralism was also practised by the Harappans.
  • They domesticated sheep, goat and fowl. They had knowledge of various other animals including buffalo, pig and elephant.
  • But horse was not known to them.
  • The Harappan cattle are called Zebu.
  • It is a large breed, often represented in their seals. 
  • They also ate fish and birds.
  • Evidence of boar, deer and gharial has been found at the Harappan sites

Craft production 

    • Craft production was an important part of the Harappan economy. 
    • Bead and ornament making, shell bangle making and metal working were the major crafts. 
    • They made beads and ornaments out of carnelian, jasper, crystal, and steatite, metals like copper, bronze and gold and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay.
    • The beads were made in innumerable designs and decorations. 
  • They were exported to Mesopotamia and the evidence for such exported artefacts have been found from the excavations in Mesopotamian sites.
  • Some artefacts and their production site was tabled above.


  • The Harappan sculpture revealed a high degree of workmanship. Figures of men and women, animals and birds made of terracotta and the carvings on the seals show the degree of proficiency attained by the sculptor. 
  • The figure of a dancing girl from Mohenjo-Daro made of bronze is remarkable for its workmanship.
  • Its right hand rests on the hip, while the left arm, covered with bangles, hangs loosely in a relaxed posture. 
  • Two stone statues from Harappa, one representing the back view of a man and the other of a dancer are also specimens of their sculpture. 
  • The pottery from Harappa is another specimen of the fine arts of the Indus people. 
  • The pots and jars were painted with various designs and colours.
  • Painted pottery is of better quality.
  • The pictorial motifs consisted of geometrical patterns like horizontal lines, circles, leaves, plants and trees.
  • On some pottery pieces we find figures of fish or peacock.


  • The Harappans used diverse varieties of pottery for daily use.
  • They use well-fired pottery. Their potteries have a deep red slip and black paintings.
  • The pottery are shaped like dish-on-stands, storage jars, perforated jars, goblets,                 S-shaped jars, plates, dishes, bowls and pots.
  • The painted motifs, generally noticed on the pottery, are pipal leaves, fish-scale design, intersecting circles, zigzag lines, horizontal bands and geometrical motifs with floral and faunal patterns. 
  • The Harappan pottery is well-baked and fine in decorations.



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