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TNPSC Free Notes History – Battle of Tarain

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

                                Battle of Tarain

Prithviraj Chauhan
 Ghori attacked the fortress of Tabarhinda (Bhatinda), a strategic point for the Chauhans
of Ajmer.
 The ruler of Ajmer Prithviraj Chauhan marched to Tabarhinda and faced the invader in
the First Battle of Tarain (1191).
 Prithviraj scored a brilliant victory in this battle but failed to consolidate his position
believing this battle to be a frontier fight, and did not expect the Ghurids to make
regular attacks.
 Ghori was wounded and carried away by a horseman to safety.
 Contrary to the expectations of Prithviraj Chauhan, Muhammad Ghori marched into
India in the following year (1192).
 Prithviraj underestimated the potential danger of the enemy.
 In the Second Battle of Tarain, one of the turning points in Indian history, Prithviraj
suffered a crushing defeat and was eventually captured.
 Ghori restored him to his throne in Ajmer.
 But on charges of treason he was later executed, and Ghori’s trusted general Qutb-ud-
din Aibak was appointed as his deputy in India.
The Slave Dynasty:

The Slave dynasty is also known as the Mamluk dynasty. Mamluk means property. It is also the
term for the Arabic designation of a slave.
Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-1210):
 Qutbuddin Aibak was a slave of Muhammad Ghori, who made him the Governor of his
Indian possessions. He set up his military headquarters at Indraprasta, near Delhi.
 He raised a standing army and established his hold over north India even during the life
time of Ghori.
 After the death of Ghori in 1206, Aibak declared his independence. He severed all
connections with the kingdom of Ghori and thus founded the Slave dynasty as well as
the Delhi Sultanate.
 He assumed the title Sultan and made Lahore his capital. His rule lasted for a short
period of four years.
 Muslim writers call Aibak Lakh Baksh or giver of lakhs because he gave liberal donations
to them.
 Aibak patronized the great scholar Hasan Nizami. He also started the construction of
after the name of a famous Sufi saint Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakthiyar.
 It was later completed by Iltutmish. Aibak died suddenly while playing chaugan (horse
polo) in 1210.
 He was succeeded by his son Aram Baksh, who was replaced by Iltutmish after eight
 He shifted his capital from Lahore to Delhi.
Iltutmish (1211-1236)
 Iltutmish belonged to the Ilbari tribe and hence his dynasty was named as Ilbari dynasty.
 His half brothers sold him as a slave to Aibak, who made him his-son-in law by giving his
daughter in marriage to him. Later Aibak appointed him as iqtadar of Gwalior.
 In 1211 Iltutmish defeated Aram Baksh and became Sultan. He overcame the challenge
of Nasiruddin Qabacha in Lahore and Multan, and frustrated the conspiracy of
Alivardan, the Governor of Bengal.
 Bandagan is the plural of banda, literally military slaves. They were graded according to
the years of service, proximity and trustworthiness.
 In the meantime, Temujin popularly known as Chengiz Khan, the leader of the Mongols,
started invading Central Asia. He defeated Jalaluddin Mangabarni, the ruler of
 Mangabarni crossed the river Indus and sought asylum from Iltutmish.
 Iltutmish refused to give him shelter in order to save his empire from the onslaught of
the Mongols.

 Fortunately for Iltutmish, Chengiz Khan returned home without entering into India. In
fact, the Mongol policy of Iltutmish saved India from the wrath of Chengiz Khan.
 Iltutmish was a great statesman. He received the mansur, the letter of recognition, from
the Abbasid Caliph in 1229 by which he became the legal sovereign ruler of India.
 He patronized many scholars and a number Sufi saints came to India during his reign.
 Minhaj-us-Siraj, Taj-ud-din., Nizam-ul-mulk Muhammad Janaidi, Malik Qutb-ud-din
Hasan and Fakhrul-Mulk Isami were his contemporary scholars who added grandeur to
his court.
 Apart from completing the construction of Qutb Minar at Delhi, the tallest stone tower
in India (238 ft.), he built a magnificent mosque at Ajmir.
 Iltutmish introduced the Arabic coinage into India and the silver tanka weighing 175
grams became a standard coin in medieval India. The silver tanka remained the basis of
the modern rupee.
 Iltutmish had also created a new class of ruling elite of forty powerful military leaders,
the Forty.
Raziya sultana (1236-1240)
 Although Iltutmish nominated his daughter Raziya as his successor, the Qazi of Delhi and
Wazir put Ruknuddin Feroz on the throne.
 When the governor of Multan revolted, Ruknuddin marched to suppress that revolt.
 Using this opportunity, Raziya with the support of Amirs of Delhi seized the throne of
Delhi Sultanate.
 She appointed an Abyssinian slave Yakuth as Master of the Royal Horses. Also, Raziya
discarded the female apparel and held the court with her face unveiled.
 She even went for hunting and led the army. This aroused resentment among the
Turkish nobles.
 According to Ibn Battuta, the Moroccan traveller, ‘Raziya rode on horseback as men
ride, armed with a bow and quiver, and surrounded by courtiers.
 In 1240, Altunia, the governor of Bhatinda revolted against her. She went in person to
suppress the revolt but Altunia killed Yakuth and took Raziya prisoner.
 In the meantime, the Turkish nobles put Bahram, another son of Iltutmish on the
throne. However, Raziya won over her captor, Altunia, and after marrying him
proceeded to Delhi. But she was defeated and killed.
 In the next six years, Bahram and Masud ruled Delhi. There ensued a struggle for
supremacy between the Sultans and the nobles
Nasir-ud-din (1246 -1266):

 In 1246 Balban succeeded in putting Nasiruddin Mahmud, a younger son of Iltutmish, as
 Iltutmish’s descendants fought long but in vain with their father’s military slaves who
had been appointed as governors of vast territories and generals of large armies.
 They constantly interfered in Delhi politics, dictating terms to Iltutmish’s successors.
 Though Iltutmish’s royal slaves (bandagan-i-khas) were replaced by junior bandagan,
the latter were not oriented to their master’s vision of a paramount, monolithic
Sultanate to the same extent as their predecessors.
 After two decades of conflict amongst the Shamsi bandagan and successive Delhi
Sultans, in 1254, Ulugh Khan, a junior, newly purchased slave in Iltutmish’s reign and
now the commander of the Shivalikh territories in the North-West, seized Delhi.
 He took the title of na’ib-i mulk, the Deputy of the Realm, seizing the throne as Sultan
Ghiyas ud-din Balban in 1266.
Balban (1246-1287)
 In 1266 Nasiruddin Mahmud died without issues and Balban ascended the throne.
 Barani mentions Balban’s campaigns in the regions surrounding Delhi and in the doab.
During these campaigns forests were cleared, new roads and forts constructed, the
newly deforested lands given to freshly recruited Afghans and others as rent-free lands
(mafruzi) and brought under cultivation.
 Balban abolished The Forty as it was hostile to him. He established a department of
spies to gather intelligence about the conspirators and the trouble makers against his
 He dealt with insubordination and defiance of royal authority sternly. Tughril Khan, a
provincial governor in Bengal, who raised a banner of revolt against Balban, was
captured and beheaded.
 He was ruthless in dealing with enemies like Meos of Mewat (a Muslim Rajput
community from north-western India). Balban, however, took care to maintain cordial
relationship with the Mongols.
 He obtained the assurance that Mongols would not advance beyond Sutlej from Hulagu
Khan, a grandson of Chengiz Khan and the Mongol viceroy in Iran,
 Balban built forts to guard his empire against the Mongol attacks. Balban died in 1287.
 When Balban died, one of his grandsons Kaiqubad was made the Sultan of Delhi.
 After four years of incompetent rule, Jalaluddin Khalji captured the throne of Delhi in
The Khalji Dynasty (1290-1320)
 When Balban died, one of his grandsons Kaiqubad was made the Sultan of Delhi.

 As Balban’ son Kaiqubad was found unfit to rule, his three-year-old son Kaymars was
placed on the throne.
 Out of this chaos a new leader, Malik Jalal-ud-din Khalji, the commander of the army,
emerged supreme.
 While he ruled the kingdom for some time in the name of Kaiqubad, he soon sent one of
his officers to get Kaiqubad murdered and Jalal-ud-din formally ascended the throne.
Jalaluddin Khalji (1290-1296):
 The advent of the Khalji dynasty marked the zenith of Muslim imperialism in India.
 The founder of the Khalji dynasty was Jalaluddin Khalji.
 He was seventy years old when he came to power.
 He was generous and lenient.
 Jalal-ud-din won many battles and even in old age he marched out against the Mongol
hordes and successfully halted their entry into India (1292).
 Malik Chhajju, nephew of Balban was allowed to remain the governor of Kara.
 His leniency was misunderstood as weakness.
 When Chhajju revolted, it was suppressed but he was pardoned.
 In 1292 when Malik Chhajju revolted for the second time, he was replaced by his son-in-
law, Alauddin Khalji.
 Ala-ud-din, a nephew and son-in-law of Jalaluddin Khalji, who was appointed governor
of Kara, invaded Malwa and this campaign yielded a huge booty.
 In 1296 Alauddin Khalji took an expedition to Devagiri and returned to Kara.
 The success of this campaign stimulated his urge to embark on a campaign to raid
Devagiri, the capital city of the Yadava kingdom in Deccan.
 During the reception there, Alauddin Khalji treacherously murdered his father-in-law
Jalaluddin Khalji and usurped the throne of Delhi.
Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296 – 1316):
 Ala-ud-din spent the first year of his rule in eliminating the enemies and strengthening
his position in Delhi.
 Soon he turned his attention to establishing a firm holds over the nobles.
 He dismissed several of his top officers.
 He was particularly severe with the nobles who had shifted loyalty and opportunistically
joined him against Jalal-ud-din.
 He framed regulations to control the nobles.
 He was convinced that the general prosperity of the nobles, intermarriages between
noble families, inefficient spy-system and drinking liquor were the basic reasons for the
rebellions. Therefore, he passed four ordinances.

 He confiscated the properties of the nobles.
 The intelligence system was reorganized and all the secret activities of the nobles were
immediately reported to the Sultan.
 The public sale of liquor and drugs was totally stopped.
 Social gatherings and festivities without the permission of Sultan were forbidden.
Military Campaigns:
 Alauddin Khalji sent his army six times against the Mongols.
 The first two was successful.
 But the third Mongol invader Khwaja came up to Delhi but they were prevented from
entering into the capital city.
 The next three Mongol invasions were also dealt with severely.
 Thousands of Mongols were killed.
 The northwestern frontier was fortified and Gazi Malik was appointed to as the Warden
of Marches to protect the frontier.
 Ala-ud-din’s campaigns into Devagiri (1296, 1307, 1314), Gujarat (1299–1300),
Ranthambhor (1301), Chittor (1303) and Malwa (1305) were meant to proclaim his
political and military power as well as to collect loot from the defeated kingdoms.
 He sent Nusrat Khan and Ulugh Khan to capture Gujarat in 1299.
 The king and his daughter escaped while the queen was caught and sent to Delhi.
 Kafur, an eunuch, was also taken to Delhi and later he was made the Malik Naib –
military commander.
 Then in 1301, Alauddin marched against Ranthampur and after a three month’s siege it
fell. The Rajput women committed jauhar or self-immolation.
 In 1303 Alauddin stormed the Chittor fort.
 Raja Ratan Singh and his soldiers fought valiantly but submitted.
 The Rajput women including Rani Padmini performed jauhar.
 This Padmini episode was graphically mentioned in the book Padmavath written by
 Alauddin Khalji’s greatest achievement was the conquest of Deccan and the far south.
 This region was ruled by four important dynasties– Yadavas of Devagiri, Kakatiyas of
Warangal, Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra and the Pandyas of Madurai.
 Ala-ud-din sent a large army commanded by Malik Kafur in 1307 to capture Devagiri
 Following Devagiri, Prataparudradeva, the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal in the Telengana
region, was defeated in 1309.
 In 1310 the Hoysala ruler Vira Ballala III surrendered all his treasures to the Delhi forces.
 Malik Kafur then set out for the Tamil country.

 Though Kafur’s progress was obstructed by heavy rains and floods, he continued his
southward journey, plundering and ravaging the temple cities of Chidambaram and
Srirangam as well as the Pandyan capital Madurai.
 Muslims in Tamil provinces fought on the side of the Pandyas against Malik Kafur.
 Malik Kafur returned to Delhi with an enormous booty in 1311.
Internal Reforms
 Ala-ud-din’s first measure was to deprive the nobles of the wealth they had
 It had provided them the leisure and means to hatch conspiracies against the Sultan.
Corrupt royal officials were dealt with sternly.
 Marriage alliances between families of noble men were permitted only with the consent
of the Sultan.
 The Sultan ordered that villages held by proprietary right, as free gift, or as a religious
endowment be brought back under the royal authority and control.
 The Sultan prohibited liquor and banned the use of intoxicating drugs.
 Gambling was forbidden and gamblers were driven out of the city.
 However, the widespread violations of prohibition rules eventually forced the Sultan to
relax the restrictions.
 Ala-ud-din collected land taxes directly from the cultivators
 He curbed the powers of the traditional village officers by depriving them of their
traditional privileges.
 The tax pressure of Ala- ud-din was on the rich and not on the poor.
 Ala-ud-din set up the postal system to keep in touch with all parts of his sprawling
 He was the first Sultan of Delhi who ordered for the measurement of land.
 Even the big landlords could not escape from paying land tax.
 Land revenue was collected in cash in order to enable the Sultan to pay the soldiers in
cash. His land revenue reforms provided a basis for the future reforms of Sher Shah and
Market Reforms
 Ala-ud-din was the first Sultan to pay his soldiers in cash rather than give them a share
of booty.
 As the soldiers were paid less, the prices had to be monitored and controlled.
 Moreover, Ala-ud-din had to maintain a huge standing army.
 In order to restrict prices of essential commodities, Ala-ud-din set up an elaborate
intelligence network to collect information on black-marketing and hoarding.

 Alauddin Khalji established four separate markets in Delhi, one for grain; another for
cloth, sugar, dried fruits, butter and oil; a third for horses, slaves and cattle; and a fourth
for miscellaneous commodities.
 Each market was under the control of a high officer called Shahna-i- Mandi.
 The supply of grain was ensured by holding stocks in government store-houses.
 Regulations were issued to fix the price of all commodities.
 A separate department called Diwani Riyasat was created under an officer called Naib-i-
 Every merchant was registered under the Market department.
 There were secret agents called munhiyans who sent reports to the Sultan regarding the
functioning of these markets.
 Market superintendents, reporters and spies had to send daily reports on the prices of
essential commodities.
 Violators of the price regulations were severely punished.
 If any deficiency in weight was found, an equal weight of flesh was cut from the seller’s
Ala-ud-din’s Successors
 Ala-ud-din nominated his eldest son Khizr Khan, as his successor.
 However, Ala-ud-din’s confidant at that time was Malik Kafur.
 So Malik Kafur himself assumed the authority of the government.
 But Kafur’s rule lasted only thirty- five days as he was assassinated by hostile nobles.
 Ghazi Malik, the governor of Dipalpur, killed the Sultan Khusru Shah and ascended the
throne of Delhi under the title of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq in 1320.
 He murdered the incumbent Khalji ruler Khusrau and thereby prevented anyone from
Khalji dynasty claiming the throne.
 Thus began the rule of the Tughlaq Dynasty, which lasted until 1414.


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