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TNPSC Free Notes Economy In English -White Revolution

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

White Revolution

In 1950’s, India was not just struggling to achieve self-sustainability in agriculture
production, but also in producing milk products such as dairy-milk, butter and infant
India has been importing butter, milk powder and infant milk feed.
Very similar to the revolution in agriculture the need was felt in animal husbandry to
produce milk products.

Major Reasons for the White Revolution
Rearing cows and buffaloes were considered secondary to agriculture.
It was a non-profit mode of small scale industry because of its primitiveness and poor
maintenance of farms and animal sheds.
The milk-producing animals such as cows and buffaloes were of native Indian origin which
did not produce enough milk to supply bigger population.
Farming in India was a rural industry which was suffering from necessary supporting
systems like transportation, preservation and distribution of milk and other dairy
Hence it suffered from lack of networking.
Farming also suffered from the usage of age-old primitive technology and inadequate
veterinary specialists.

Mortality rate of cows and buffaloes was very high due to communicable diseases which
forced the milk vendors to show a very poor interest to continue the business in a large
A rural development programme was started by India’s National Dairy Development Board
(NDDB) in 1970.
This national grid aimed to augment the milk production and distribute across all parts of
the nation to prevent shortage of milk products.
The Government of India adopted the method and process followed by Gujarat’s AMUL
(Anand Milk Union Limited) founded by Verghese Kurien.
AMUL had a humble beginning in 1950’s in Gujarat with less than 200 farms.
Milk was collected from these farms and it was supplied to the consumers in Mumbai.
As it was found very profitable among the farming community it was extended to more
numbers in Gujarat.
In 1960’s AMUL became a very well established dairy society in India.
In 1966, Prime Minister Lal Bahudar Sastri inaugurated Operation Flood with NDDB headed
by Mr. Verghese Kurien.
Verghese Kurien became the architect of the programme and gave professional help in
bringing this White Revolution in 1970’s.
Major Objectives of the Operation Flood:
To increase milk production.
To increase rural incomes of dairy sheds.
To provide fair price for consumers.
To reduce the import burden on the national exchequer.
To establish a National Milk Grid.
To meet nutrients needs.
The White Revolution or Operation Flood programme was implemented in three phases.
In the first phase (1970-79), 18 of the country’s main milk sheds were connected to the
consumers of the four major cities namely Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta and Madras.
The total cost of this phase was Rs. 116 crores.
In the second phase (1981–85), the milk sheds were increased from 18 to 136 and the city
market points increased to 290 for urban distribution of milk.
By the end of 1985, more than 43,000 self-sustaining village cooperatives with 42.5 lakh
milk producers were covered.
Domestic milk powder production increased from 22,000 tons in the pre-project year to
140,000 tons by 1989.
In the third phase (1985–96), the dairy cooperatives were enabled to expand and
strengthen the required facilities to procure and market increasing volumes of milk.

Veterinary medical care, cattle nutrition and artificial insemination services for cooperative
members were expanded along with intensified dairy farm education.
It went with adding 30,000 new dairy cooperatives to the 42,000 existing societies
organized during Phase II.
Milk sheds peaked to 173 in 1988-89 with the numbers of women members and Women’s
Dairy Cooperative Societies increasing significantly.
Major Achievements of the White Revolution
The phenomenal growth of milk production in India – from 20 million metric tons to 100
million metric ton within a span of 40 years was made possible only because of the dairy
cooperative movement.
This has propelled India to emerge as the largest milk producing country in the world today.
It not only achieved self-sufficiency but also increased the production of infant milk powder
very considerably.
The dairy cooperative movement facilitated the Indian dairy farmers to take interest in
cows and buffaloes which has resulted in the 500 million cattle population in the
country which is the largest in the world.
The dairy cooperative movement has spread across the length and breadth of the country,
covering more than 125,000 villages of 180 districts in 22 states.
The movement has been successful because of a well-developed network of procurement
and distribution system with the support of National, State and Village governance.

Tamil Nadu Co-operative Milk Producers’ Federation (TCMPF)
The Tamil Nadu Dairy Development Corporation Limited was formed in 1972 to manage the
activities such as milk procurement, processing and marketing of the milk and milk
Based on Dr. Kurien pattern, Tamil Nadu Co-operative Milk Producers’ Federation (TCMPF)
was formed in 1981.
The per capita availability of milk in Tamil Nadu has increased from 169 gm/day in 1993-94
to 268 gm/day in 2017-18.
Sir. Viswesvarayya who is considered to be a pioneer in economic planning in India was
a chief civil engineer, scholar, statesman, politician and the 19 th Diwan of Mysore,
who served from 1912 to 1919. He received India’s highest honour, the Bharat
Ratna, in 1955.
While the World Milk Day is celebrated on June 1 each year, National Milk Day is
celebrated on November 26. This day marks the birth anniversary of Verghese
Kurien, the Father of White Revolution in India.


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