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TNPSC Free Notes Economy In English -Green Revolution

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Green Revolution


Agriculture has been the most intensive form of economic activity leading to 12-15% of its
contribution to GDP.
Agriculture is not only for sustaining the food grains and vegetation to cater to the
requirements of the growing population but has its contribution in creating largest
employment sector, fostering one large section of the Indian industry called Agrarian
Industry and has been contributing and earning foreign exchange to our nation.
Agriculture is not just grains alone, but it spreads to various Agricultural Tertiary sectors
such as Coconut Farming, Orchids and cash crops such as Cashew Nuts, Coffee, Tea,
Pepper and Vegetables.
The primary need to sustain Indian agriculture to cater the growing requirements of the
population was felt immediately after Independence.
However, the nature of importance that was given to Agriculture varied from the 1 st five-
year plan to 12 th five-year Plan.
Because in the initial years after independence, the importance was given to the setting of
industry and industrial system in India.
In the first 10 years after Independence, with the continuous adoption of primitive
technology of farming the agricultural outcome was able to meet the basic needs of the
population that was growing around 2.5% annually.
It was during the 1960s when India began to face the shortfall in meeting the population
Because Food Grain production did not increase to cater to the needs of the population.
This led to the Green Revolution.
Green Revolution in India
Agricultural country with the growing population dependent on agriculture.
With the shortfalls experience of India’s first 2 five-year plans, it was realised that
agriculture in India had serious problems namely,
It was not able to produce required grains to suit the growing population.
Insufficiency in production due to the traditional agricultural practice which was
primitive in the use of technology.
The pattern of agriculture was not only very primitive but farmers relied on long term
crop patterns which took long time to see the results.
Since India is a monsoon dependent state the agricultural output was dependent on the
nature of rainfall, insufficient rainfall resulted in drought which affected the grain
production in India leading to famine, starvation and deaths.
During 1960’s a new Agriculture Policy was formulated on the basis of suggestions given by
the Ford Foundation.

In its report ‘India’s Crisis of Food and Steps to Meet it’ the Ford Foundation’s agricultural
experts suggested ways and means to improve the agricultural process namely the
usage of High Yield Crop Seeds and mechanization of agricultural activity leading to
intensive methods of production, optimal usage of fertilizers, agrarian marketing and
storage of grains to avoid wastage etc.,
Mexico adopted the suggestions and witnessed tremendous growth in agriculture.
The Philippines also adopted the suggestions to bring about self-sufficiency in its
agricultural production.
It was in 1959-60 the Government of India adopted the suggestions given by the Ford
Foundation and introduced the reforms in agriculture.
These reforms were adopted as a collective programme in order to bring existing and new
irrigation facilities, application of fertilizers, hybrid seeds that can bring high yield,
pesticides, insecticides etc..
This new way was gradually adopted in Indian agriculture.
This was called the Green Revolution.
The plan for Green Revolution was formulated by the notable agriculture scientist Dr. M.S.
Swaminathan who was later known as the Father of India’s Green Revolution.
In simple terms, the increased use of fertilizers and irrigation are known collectively as the
Indian Green Revolution.
The Green Revolution took place between 1967-78 which resulted in 50% increase in
agricultural production.
In 1960, seven districts in seven states were selected by the Indian Government for a pilot
project known as Intensive Area Development Programme (IADP).
As the results were far more satisfactory, the reform programme was extended to other
Hence, this programme was extended to remaining states and one district from each state
was selected for intensive development.
Subsequently, it was extended to 144 districts in 1965.
In the initial stage, this programme was implemented around 2 million hectares of area.
Gradually the coverage of the programme was enlarged and the total area covered by this
Green Revolution programme was estimated as 70 million hectares which accounted to
40% of the agricultural cover.
Consequently, farming activities began throughout the year, that is, from single cropping
pattern to multiples of cropping and mixed cropping, which meant not just the
cultivation of wheat or rice alone as in the traditional farming pattern.
Due to the geo-climate variations in different parts of India, farmers in India adopted
different types of cropping pattern.

Northern States of India like Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh quickly found better
results with regard to wheat.
While Southern states like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, etc found lesser rate of success in
regard to cultivation of rice.
However, the overall result in the long run was more impressive to alleviate food shortage.
Major impacts of the Green Revolution
Substantial Increase in Agricultural Production
Volume of agricultural outcome increased by two to three-fold compared to the period
in the 1950’s.
The increased production of rice, wheat, cereals and vegetables had erased the
humiliation that India had to import grains from the United States during the PL-140
programme in 1950’s.
Moreover, the agricultural goods were freely available to the people in the open
Increased Opportunity in Agricultural Employment
Due to intensive cropping throughout the year, the demand for agricultural employment
Agriculture, Industry and Market
The Green Revolution in India not only brought a change in agricultural activity, but also
brought a healthy relationship between market and industry.
As scientific farming was more dependent on agricultural engineering such as farm
equipments, tractors etc., industries began to show interest to produce farm
equipments to suit the increasing demand at low cost.
Inter-State Exchange and Market Mechanism
One of the major problem faced by the states in India was that the Green Revolution
was beneficial only to those states where the soil was fertile.
Hence, states that produced in excess distributed their output to other states which
were climatically dry such as Vidarbha and Telangana.


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