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TNPSC Free Notes Economy In English – Ensuring Social Justice

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Ensuring Social Justice

 Article 38(2) states “The State shall, in particular, strive to minimize the inequalities in
income, and endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities,
not only amongst individuals but also amongst groups of people residing in different
areas or engaged in different vocations”. This was kept in mind by the planners in
formulating each of the plans.
 Ensuring social justice has gone hand in hand with economic planning. Along with
measures for development, it is also important to give equal opportunities to all with
regard to education and employment.
 The establishment of a socialistic pattern of society ensured that there will be no
concentration of wealth in the hands of a few so that exploitation and oppression could
be ended.
 Historically, the Indian society has fostered exploitation and suppression of one section
by another.

 It was a challenge to the constitution makers to tackle all these traditional forces and
social evils so that social and economic justice could be realized.
 The justiciable rights under Part III of the constitution dealing with Fundamental rights
enables the citizens to get protection for all the rights required to live a complete life.
 The non-justiciable rights under Part IV on Directive Principles of State Policy ensures
that the system functions in such a way that the inequalities of income among people is
reduced and an egalitarian society is established.
 The rural urban divide was another important area where the Planning Commission had
to concentrate. In the process of economic development, industrialization and
urbanization increased and this had its impact on the Indian society and economy.
 Disparity in the development of the rural and urban population would foster inequality
which is against the principle enshrined in the constitution.
 The Planning Commission recommended many programmes for the development of the
rural economy so that the development of both the rural and urban population could be
Democratic Socialism
 When India got independence, there were many problems that the nation had to
handle. One among these problems was which would be the best strategy for long term
 Jawaharlal Nehru was the architect of planning in India. He was inspired by the soviet
model of planning and was also inspired by the liberal principles of capitalism. He
wanted to bring the two ideas together in India which was termed as democratic
 For Nehru, democracy and planning had to go together.
 Planning was an integrated way to look at the needs of the society. It had to interlink
production, consumption, employment, transport, education, health, social service etc.
Such a society enables the complete development of the personality of the individual. It
is the responsibility of the state to direct its policy to secure a better distribution of
ownership and control of the material resources of the community.
 To protect the weaker sections, the state is also expected to control the distribution of
essential commodities.
First Five Year Plan (1951-1956)
 It was based on the Harrod-Domar Model.
 Its main focus was on the agricultural development of the country.
 This plan was successful and achieved the GDP growth rate of 3.6% (more
than its target)

Second Five Year Plan (1956-1961)
 It was based on the P.C. Mahalanobis Model.
 Its main focus was on the industrial development of the country.
 This plan was successful and achieved the growth rate of 4.1%
Third Five Year Plan (1961-1966)
 This plan was called ‘Gadgil Yojana’ also.
 The main target of this plan was to make the economy independent and to reach self-
sufficient position or take off.
 Due to Indo -China war, this plan could not achieve its growth target of 5.6%
Plan Holiday (1966-1969)
 The main reason behind the plan holiday was the Indo-Pakistan war & failure of third
 During this plan, annual plans were made and equal priority was given to agriculture, its
allied sectors and the industry sector.
Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974)
 There are two main objectives of this plan i.e. growth with stability and progressive
achievement of self-reliance.
 This plan failed and could achieve growth rate of 3.3% only, against the target of 5.7%.
Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-1979)
 In this plan top priority was given to agriculture, next came industry and mines.
 Overall this plan was successful, which achieved the growth rate of 4.8% against the
target of 4.4%.
 The draft of this plan was prepared and launched by D.P. Dhar. This plan was terminated
in 1978.
Rolling Plan
This plan was started with an annual plan for 1978-79 and as a continuation of the terminated
fifth year plan.
Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-1985)
 The basic objective of this plan was poverty eradication and technological self-reliance.
Garibi-Hatao was the motto.
 It was based on investment yojana.

 Its growth target was 5.2% but it achieved 5.7%.
Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-1990)
 Objectives of this plan included the establishment of the self sufficient economy and
opportunities for productive employment.
 For the first time, due to the pressure from private sector the private sector got the
priority over public sector.
 Its growth target was 5.0% but it achieved 6.0%.
Annual Plans
Eighth five-year Plan could not take place due to volatile political situation at the centre. So two
annual programmes are formed in 1990-91 & 1991-92.
Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-1997)
 In this plan the top priority was given to development of the human resources i.e.
employment, education and public health.
 During this plan, New Economic Policy of India was introduced.
 This plan was successful and got annual growth rate of 6.8% against the target of 5.6%.
Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002)
 The main focus of this plan was “growth with justice and equity”.
 This plan failed to achieve the growth target of 7% and Indian economy grew only at the
rate of 5.6%.
Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007)
 This plan aimed to double the per capita income of India in the next 10 years.
 It aimed to reduce the poverty ratio to 15% by 2012.
 Its growth target was 8.0%, but it achieved only 7.2%.
Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012)
 Its main theme was “faster and more inclusive growth”.
 Its growth rate target was 8.1%, but it achieved only 7.9%
Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-2017)
 Its main theme is “Faster, More Inclusive and Sustainable Growth”.
 Its growth rate target is 8%.


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