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TNPSC Free Notes Biology – Reproductive Glands (Gonads)

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.

Reproductive Glands (Gonads)

 The sex glands are of two types the testes and the ovaries.
 Testes are the primary male sex organs.
 Each testis is covered by an outermost fibrous tunica albuginea.
 The accessory glands of the male reproductive system include
1. The paired seminal vesicles
2. Bulbourethral glands also called Cowper’s gland
3. A single prostate gland

Leydig Cells:
 The Interstitial cells or Leydig cells are embedded in the soft connective
tissue surrounding the seminiferous tubules.
 These cells are endocrine in nature and secrete androgens namely the
testosterone hormone which initiates the process of spermatogenesis.
 These cells are endocrine in nature and are characteristic features of the

testes of mammals.
 Other immunologically competent cells are also present.

Functions of testosterone
 It influences the process of spermatogenesis.
 It stimulates protein synthesis and controls muscular growth.
 It is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characters
(distribution of hair on body and face, deep voice pattern, etc.).
 Ovaries are the primary female sex organs that produce the female gamete,
 Females have a pair of ovaries located in the pelvic region of the abdomen.
 The stroma is differentiated as the outer cortex and inner medulla.
 Below the germinal epithelium is a dense connective tissue, the tunica
 The ovaries are the female gonads located in the pelvic cavity of the
abdomen. They secrete the female sex hormones
a. Estrogen
b. Progesterone
 Estrogen is produced by the Graafian follicles of the ovary and
progesterone from the corpus luteum that is formed in the ovary from
the ruptured follicle during ovulation.

Functions of estrogens
 It brings about the changes that occur during puberty.
 It initiates the process of oogenesis.
 It stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicles in the ovary.
 It promotes the development of secondary sexual characters (breast
development, high pitched voice etc.).
Functions of progesterone
 It is responsible for the premenstrual changes of the uterus.
 It prepares the uterus for the implantation of the embryo.

 It maintains pregnancy.
 It is essential for the formation of placenta.


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