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TNPSC Free Notes Biology – Fungi

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.


General characters of fungi:
 Fungi (singular – fungus) belongs to thallophyta because the plant body is
not differentiated into root, stem, and leaves.

 The plant body of fungus consists of filament like structures called as
hyphae. Several hyphae arranged in the form of network called
 There are two types of mycelium found in fungi, namely septate mycelium
and aseptate mycelium.
 If the cross wall is seen between the cell, it is called septate mycelium. If
the cross wall is not seen, it is called aseptate mycelium.
 When aseptate mycelium contains many nuclei it is called as coenocytic
 The cells of fungi are multicellular and eukaryotic organisation. Some
species of fungi like yeast is unicellular and eukaryotic cell.
 Cell wall of fungi is made up of a chemical substance called chitin.
 The reserve food materials of fungi are glycogen and oil.
 They have no starch because they have no chlorophyll pigments.
 So, they are heterotrophs. Heterotrophs are of three types called parasites,
saprophytes and symbionts.

Classification of Fungi
W.Martin (1961)
Two types
1. Myxomycets
2. Eumycete
 Phycomycetes
 Ascomycetes
 Basidiomycetes
 Deuteromycetes

Economic Importance of fungi:
1. Antibiotic:

Penicillin (Penicilliumnotatum), Neomycin, Gentamycin, Erythromycin
are some antibiotics obtained from fungi, which cure variable diseases.

2. Food:
Mushroom contains rich protein and minerals. The most common edible
mushroom is Agaricus. (Button mushroom).
3. Vitamins:
Fungus like Ashbyagospii and Erymothecium ashbyii are used to produce
vitamin B2 (riboflavin).
4. Alcohol:
Fungus like yeast contains enzymes invertase and zymase, which ferment
the sugar molasses into alcohol.
Diseases caused by Fungi in Plants:
S.no Pathogen Name of the Disease
1 Fusarium oxisporam Wilt disease of cotton
2 Cercospora personata Tikka disease of ground nut
3 Colletotrichumfalcatum Red rot of sugar cane
4 Pyricularia oryzae Blast disease of paddy
5 Albugo candida White rust of radish

Diseases caused by Fungi in Human:
Name of the Fungi Name of the Disease
Trichophyton sp. Ring worm (Circular rash on the skin)
Microsporum furfur Dandruff
Tinea pedis Athletes foot


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