- GS Paper 2: Governance, Administration and Challenges- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
- GS Paper 3: Environment: Conservation, environmental pollution, and degradation
- Recently, the third edition of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) India Index and Dashboard 2020–21 was released by NITI Aayog.
- Title of the report –SDG India Index and Dashboard 2020–21: Partnerships in the Decade of Action.
- NITI Aayog has the mandate for coordinating the adoption and monitoring of SDGs at the national and sub-national levels.
About SDG India index
- It is an annual index launched in 2018 by NITI Aayog on the lines of the annual Sustainable Development Report prepared by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN).
- SDG India index represents the articulation of the comprehensive nature of the Global Goals under the 2030 Agenda while being attuned to the national priorities.
- Aim: twin aim of the NITI Aayog-
- To monitor the country’s progress on the goals through data-driven assessment, and
- To foster a cooperative and competitive spirit among the States and Union Territories in achieving them.
- Ranking method:
- The SDG India Index computes goal-wise scores on the 16 SDGs for each State and Union Territory.
- Measurement of aggregate performance: Overall State and UT scores are generated from goal-wise scores at the sub-national unit based on its performance across the 16 SDGs.
- Scores range between 0–100: The higher the score of a State/UT, the greater the distance to target achieved. A score of 100 signifies the achievement of 2030 SDG targets.
- Classification of states/UTs: based on their performance on the SDG India index, they are classified into four categories-
- Aspirant: 0–49
- Performer: 50–64
- Front-Runner: 65–99
- Achiever: 100
SDG India Index 2020–21
- Developed in collaboration with the United Nations in India.
- The index tracks all States and UTs on 115 indicators aligned to the Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation (MoSPI)’s National Indicator Framework (NIF).
- These II5 indicators Incorporate 16 out of 17 SDGs, with a qualitative assessment on Goal 17, and cover 70 SDG targets.
- 2018-19 index-utilized 62 indicators across 39 targets and 13 Goals; 2019-20 index-100 indicators across 54 targets and 16 Goals
Analysis of the SDG India index 2020-21
- At the national level:
- Positives: The country’s overall SDG score improved by 6 points—from 60 in 2019 to 66 in 2020–21, mainly driven by excellent performance on Goal 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) and Goal 7(Affordable and Clean Energy).
- Poor performance: there has been a major decline in the areas of industry, innovation, and infrastructure (Goal 9) as well as decent work and economic growth (Goal 8).
- Currently, there are no states in the aspirant and achiever category; 15 states/UTs are in the performer category, and 22 states/UTs in the front runner category.
- State/UT performance:
- Top performers- states: Kerala retained its position (score 72) followed by Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh, both scoring 72.
- Top-performing UTs: Chandigarh maintained its top spot among the UTs with a score of 79, followed by Delhi (68).
- Worst performers: Bihar (52), Jharkhand (56), and Assam (57).
- Top gainers in comparison to 2019-20: Mizoram, Haryana, and Uttarakhand with an increase of 12, 10, and 8 points, respectively.
Significance of SDG India index
- It helps in identifying crucial gaps related to tracking the SDGs and the need for India to develop its statistical systems.
- Act as a Key Policy tool: for focused policy dialogue, formulation, and implementation through development actions, in line with the global SDG framework.
- The SDG India Index 2020–21 is also live on an online dashboard, which has cross-sectoral relevance across policy, civil society, business, and academia.
- Upcoming North Eastern Region (NER) District SDG Index: The Index is presently being adapted and developed by NITI Aayog at the granular level of districts for NER.
- Encouraging evidence-based policymaking: by supporting States and UTs to benchmark their progress, identify the priority areas and share good practices.