Important Prelims Articles- 22st July 2021_00.1
UPSC Exam   »   Important Prelims Articles- 22st July 2021

Important Prelims Articles- 22st July 2021

Akash missile

  

Context

  • Recently, a new generation of Akash (Aakash-NG) surface-­to-­air missile was successfully flight­ tested by the DRDO from an integrated test range off the Odisha coast in a boost to air defence capabilities.
  • The new variant of the Akash missile (Akash­-NG) has a slightly better range compared to the original version

Important Prelims Articles- 22st July 2021_50.1

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Key points

  • About Aakash Missile
    • It is India’s first indigenously produced medium-range Surface to Air missile that can engage multiple targets from multiple directions.
    • It can engage targets at a speed 2.5 times more than the speed of sound and reach a high altitude of 18 km and as low as 30 meters.
    • It has been designed and developed by DRDO as part of India’s Integrated guided-missile development program (IGMDP) which also includes other missiles like Nag, Agni, Trishul, and Prithvi.
    • It can be fired from both tracked and wheeled platforms.
    • It is designed to intercept enemy aircraft and missiles from a distance of 18 to 30 km.
    • It has a strike range of 25 km and the capability to carry a warhead of 60 kilograms.

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Additional Information

  • Integrated Guided-Missile Development Programme (IGMDP): Started in 1982-83 and completed in 2008.
    • It was an Indian Ministry of Defence’s program for the research and development of a comprehensive range of missiles. It is managed by the DRDO.
    • It was the brainchild of renowned scientist and late former President of India APJ Abdul Kalam.

 

 Important Prelims Articles- 21st July 2021

 

National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA)

 

Context

  • The union government is planning to renovate and reorganize the National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA) as a part of the commemoration of the 75th Independence Day next year (which is to be celebrated as Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav).

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Key points

  • It was instituted in 1954, at the Jaipur House, New Delhi.
  • It is run and administered as a subordinate office to the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
  • The main museum in New Delhi was established in 1954 by the Government of India, with subsequent branches at Mumbai and Bangalore.
  • Aim:
    • To acquire and preserve works of modern art from the 1850s onwards and to present it to a global audience which will create an understanding and sensitivity towards a time that helped shape contemporary art in India.
    • The institution is also committed to promoting contemporary Indian art in its various forms.
    • To ensure collaborations and partnerships both at the national and international platform and to present Indian art and artists to a wider global audience.
  • In 2020, NGMA organized online NAIMISHA 2020- Summer Art, to reach its audiences during the Covid-19 outbreak.
    • NAIMISHA 2020 is an initiative to provide a chance to participants and art enthusiasts to create and learn from practicing artists.
  • So’ham: It is the first cultural media platform of India, under the banner of NGMA. It aims to develop a dialogue between NGMA, artists, and art enthusiasts.
    • Vedic philosophy of So’ham: stands for one’s identity and its connection to the universe.

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New Shephard Rocket

 

Context

  • Amazon CEO, Jeff Bezos, went on a short journey to space in his Blue Origin rocket ship, New Shephard.

 

Key points

  • Within few minutes, the astronauts crossed the Karman line—the internationally recognized space boundary from the earth.
  • The capsule touched back down after the 10-minute, 10-second

 

What is New Shephard?

  • It is a rocket system built by Blue Origin to promote space tourism.
  • It is named after Alan Shephard, the first American astronaut to reach space.
  • It can cover a distance of over 100 km above the Earth and can accommodate payloads too.
  • It is a fully reusable system with vertical take-off and vertical landing space vehicles.
  • The capsule can hold a maximum of six people.
  • Air brakes deploy on the descent to reduce speed by half.

 

Significance of the mission

  • This sub-orbital mission aims to promote space tourism.
  • The ultimate objective is to take all heavy industry, all polluting industry, and move it into space, and keep Earth pollution-free.
  • It is also meant for purposes like academic research, corporate technology development, entrepreneurial ventures

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Green Hydrogen Plant

 

Context

  • Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) is setting up India’s first ‘Green Hydrogen’ plant at Mathura, UP, to cater to the growing demand for clean forms of energy.

 

Key points

  • This plant will be India’s first Green Hydrogen plant. Earlier projects were to produce green hydrogen from fossil fuels like natural gas.
  • Though hydrogen, in itself, is a clean fuel, manufacturing it is energy-intensive and has carbon by-products.
  • Different hydrogen fuels
    • Brown hydrogen is created through coal gasification while the process of producing grey hydrogen throws off carbon waste.
    • Blue hydrogen uses carbon capture and storage for the greenhouse gases produced in the creation of grey hydrogen.
    • Green hydrogen production – the ultimate clean hydrogen resource – uses renewable energy to create hydrogen fuel.
  • Green hydrogen will replace carbon-emitting fuels that are used in the Mathura refinery to process crude oil into value-added products such as petrol and diesel.
  • Forecasts by various agencies see Indian fuel demand climbing to 400-450 million tonnes by 2040.
  • This gives enough space for all forms of energy to co-exist. The demand growth makes it imperative to pursue refining expansion as well as expand footprint in compressed natural gas, LNG, biodiesel, and ethanol.

 

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