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Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 23 April, 2021

Daily news will speed up the preparation for the Civil Services Examination and it also plays a crucial role to grasp the current affairs topic comprehensively. Here we have covered most of the topics related to various categories including National, International, Sports, Science and Technology, and so on.
1. Global Energy Transition Index
Why in news?
The World Economic Forum released the Global Energy Transition Index report on April 21, 2021.
Key points are:
– Out of 115 countries, India has been ranked at 87th position in the Energy Transition Index- ETI. It tracks nations on the basis of the current performance of their energy systems across different aspects.
– The top 10 nations in the global energy transition index are the Northern and Western European countries. Sweden is in the first position followed by Norway in second and Denmark in third.
– According to the report, 92 out of 115 nations on the index have improved their aggregate score over the past 10 years.
–  The result on the index shows the positive direction and steady drive of the global energy transition.
– According to the report, China at 67 and India at 87, which also collectively account for a third of global energy demand, have made strong improvements over the past decade, even though coal continues to play a significant role in their energy mix.
About Energy Transition Index
– The index has measured 115 countries on the current performances of their energy systems across three dimensions- environmental sustainability, economic development and growth, and energy security and access indicators.
– The countries are also benchmarked on the basis of their readiness to transition to sustainable, secure, inclusive, and affordable energy systems.
– The latest report by World Economic Forum is based on a revised ETI methodology that takes into consideration the recent changes in the global energy landscape as well as increasing the urgency of climate change action.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 22 April, 2021
2. Indian women win 7 gold in AIBA Youth World Boxing Championship
Why in news?
Indian Women have created history at the AIBA 2021 Youth World Boxing Championship. A total of eight Indians entered the finals. Of this, seven were women. All the women finalists finished on top.
Key points are:
All the women finalists registered victories and finished top. They were as follows:
Gitika – 48 kg
Naorem Babyrojisana Chanu 51 kg
Poonam 57 kg
Vinka 60 kg
Arundhati Choudhary 69 kg
T Sanamacha Chanu 75 kg
Alfiya Pathan 81 kg
– This year, India won seven gold at the AIBA Youth Women World Boxing Championships. The sixth gold was added by Sanamacha. Sanamacha trains at boxing MC Mary Kom’s Academy in Imphal. She outperformed Kazakhstan’s Dana Diday in 75 kg final.
– In 2017, Indian Women won five gold medals. The 2017 Youth World Championship was held in Guwahati.
– Alfiya of Laharashtra clinched the seventh gold for India. She defeated a strong contender Daria Kozorez of Moldova.
– Gitika of Haryana won gold in 48 kg. She defeated a two-time European champion, Erika Prisciandaro. Erika is from Italy. In the finals, Gitika defeated Natalia Kuczewska.
– Poonam and Babyrojisana added two more gold medals. Poonam won Sthelyne Grosy in the finals and Babyrojisana won Valeriia Linkova in the finals.
About AIBA
– AIBA is International World Boxing Championships. It organises AIBA Women World Boxing Championship and AIBA World Boxing Championships biennially.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 21 April, 2021
3. International Religious Freedom Report 2021
Why in news?
The US Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) has recommended for the second year in the row to put India on a list (‘Countries of Particular Concern’ or CPCs) for the worst violations of religious freedoms in 2020.
Key points are:
– Earlier, the US State Department, in its 2020 Human Rights Report, pointed out several Human Rights Issues in India.
– The Report’s primary focus is on two groups of countries:
“Country of Particular Concern (CPC)” is a designation by the US Secretary of State of a nation engaged in severe violations of religious freedom under IRFA (International Religious Freedom Act of 1998).
A “Special Watch List” country is one that is deemed not to meet all of the CPC criteria but engages in or tolerates severe violations of religious freedom.
– The Report also includes USCIRF’s recommendations of violent nonstate actors for designation by the US State Department as “entities of particular concern,” or EPCs, under IRFA.
– USCIRF is an independent, bipartisan US federal government commission, dedicated to defending the universal right to freedom of religion or belief abroad.
– It is an advisory body to the US Congress.
– USCIRF’s 2021 Annual Report assesses religious freedom violations and progress during the calendar year 2020 in 26 countries and makes independent recommendations for US policy.
– It is Headquartered at Washington DC.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 20 April, 2021
4. World Book and Copyright Day
Why in news?
Every year the World Book and Copyrights Day is celebrated on April 23 by UNESCO.
Key points are:
– UNESCO is United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation.
– This year, to celebrate World Book and Copyright Day, UNESCO has created the “Bookface Challenge”.
– UNESCO decided to celebrate World Book and Copyrights Day on April 23 as it is the death anniversary of William Shakespeare, Miguel de Cervantes, and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega.
– The first World Book and Copyrights Day was celebrated in 1995. The UNESCO Prize for Children’s and Young People’s Literature in the Service of Tolerance is awarded on this day. Also, the day will increase the understanding of copyright laws and other measures that protect intellectual properties.
– Every year UNESCO and other international organisations select World Book Capital for a one-year capital. This year Tbilisi of Georgia has been selected as the World Book Capital.

Daily Gist of ‘The Hindu’, ‘PIB’, ‘Indian Express’ and Other Newspapers: 19 April, 2021
5. NASA’s Perseverance Rover generates oxygen on Mars for the first time
Why in news?
In the growing list of ‘firsts’ on the Red Planet, NASA’s Perseverance Rover on April 20 successfully generated oxygen from the thin atmosphere of Mars for the first time ever.
Key points are:
– MOXIE, aboard NASA’s Perseverance Rover, generated about 5 grams (equivalent to 10 minutes of breathable oxygen) on Mars.
– The Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment (MOXIE)instrument aboard NASA’s Perseverance Rover created the milestone experiment that ‘could pave the way for science fiction to become science fact’ said NASA in a statement.
– This can help in storing oxygen and help power rockets off the planet’s surface in the future.
– MOXIE, aboard NASA’s Perseverance Rover, generated about 5 grams (equivalent to 10 minutes of breathable oxygen) just a day after the first flight of NASA’s Ingenuity helicopter.
The Mars Oxygen In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiment is a toaster-sized gold-coated exploration instrument aboard NASA’sPerseverance Rover.
MOXIE is tasked with producing oxygen from the thin, carbon-dioxide-dominated atmosphere of Mars. This will aid in providing breathable air for human exploration missions on Mars and propel rockets off the surface of Mars.

Daily Gist of 'The Hindu', 'PIB', 'Indian Express' and Other Newspapers: 23 April, 2021_40.1

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6. Article 311(2)(C) of the Constitution
Why in news?
The J&K government has constituted a Special Task Force (STF) for identifying and scrutinising the government employees who are involved in any cases related to posing threat to security or anti-national activities.
Key points are:
– STF will scrutinise cases of employees suspected of activities requiring action under Article 311(2)(C) of the Constitution.
Provisions of Article 311 (2):
– Where the President is satisfied that the retention of a person in public service is prejudicial to the security of the State, his services can be terminated without recourse to the normal procedure prescribed in Article 311 (2).
– The satisfaction referred to in the proviso is the subjective satisfaction of the President about the expediency of not giving an opportunity to the employee concerned in the interest of the security of the State.
– This clause does not require that reasons for the satisfaction should be recorded in writing. That indicates that the power given to the President is unfettered and cannot be made a justifiable issue, as that would amount to substituting the satisfaction of the court in place of the satisfaction of the President.
– The move comes as a number of government employees in the past were found expressing their political opinion in public space on the Kashmir conflict.
– According to official data, scores of employees were found involved in stone-pelting, participating in anti-India demonstrations, and expressing anti-national sentiments on social media during the five-month-long agitation in 2016.
– The Supreme court in the case of Bansh Singh Vs State of Punjab clearly held that suspension from service is neither dismissal nor removal nor reduction in rank, therefore, if a Government servant is suspended he cannot claim the constitutional guarantee of Article 311.
– In Shyam Lal Vs State of U.P Supreme Court held that compulsory retirement differs from dismissal and removal as it involves no penal consequences and also a government servant who is compulsory retired does not lose any part of the benefit earned during the service so it doesn’t attract the provisions of Article 311.

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7. Fifth Session of Codex Committee on Spices and Culinary Herbs (CCSCH)
Why in news?
Recently, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) inaugurated the fifth session of the Codex Committee on Spices and Culinary Herbs (CCSCH) established under Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC).
Key points are:
– Codex Committee on Spices and Culinary Herbs (CCSCH) was formed in 2013.
– Its terms of reference are to elaborate worldwide standards for spices and culinary herbs in their dried and dehydrated state in whole, ground, and cracked or crushed form.
– To consult, as necessary, with other international organizations in the standards development process to avoid duplication.
– India is the host country and Spices Board India is the Secretariat for organising the sessions of the committee.
– Spices Board (Ministry of Commerce and Industry) is the flagship organization for the development and worldwide promotion of Indian spices.
– Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) is an intergovernmental body established jointly by the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1963, within the framework of the Joint Food Standards Programme.
– The Secretariat of the CAC is hosted at FAO headquarters in Rome.
– It was established to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade.
– It meets in regular sessions once a year alternating between Geneva and Rome.

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