In many teaching exams including REET, UTET & DSSSB Exams etc. Science may be an interesting subject with interesting notes and quizzes. In TET Exams, there will be 30 questions i.e. 15 Questions Science content and 15 questions of Science Pedagogy in REET, UTET and other State TET Exams. Science comprising of various branches of studies like chemistry, physical science, and life science.
Vitamins are a group of compound, required in small quantity for controlling metabolism and body functioning.
Vitamins are two types- fat soluble (A, D, E, K) and water soluble (B and C)
(A). Fat soluble Vitamins:
|Vitamins (Name)||Rich food source||Functions||Deficiency Diseases|
|A (Retinol)||Fish liver oils, dairy product, liver, most leafy vegetables and carrots contain carotene that can be converted into retinol||Needed for normal growth and induce differentiation of cells
Regeneration of rhodopsin in rod cells of the eyes. Maintain of normal vision
Essential for immune system.
|Dry skin, night blindness(Nyctalopia)|
|D (Calciferol)||Fish oils, egg yolk and butter. It can be made by the action of sunlight on skin||Promotes absorption of calcium from intestine.
Necessary for formation of normal bone
|Rickets in children (soft bones that bend easily). Osteomalacia (painful bones) in adults|
|E (Tocopherol)||Vegetables oils, cereal products, whole grain, nuts, egg, butter etc||Formation of red blood cells, affect muscles and reproductive system.
Maintain healthy cholesterol level
|Mild anaemia and sterility.|
|K (Phylloquinone)||Fresh, dark green vegetables. Also made by gut bacteria||Formation of prothrombin (involved in blood clotting||Delayed clotting time. May occur in new born babies before their gut bacteria become established|
(B). Water soluble Vitamins
|Vitamins||Rich food source||Function||Deficiency Diseases|
|B1 (Thiamine)||Pork, cereals, nuts, seeds, yeast, whole grain||Essential in converting glucose to energy
Important to nerve function
|Beriberi (weakness of limb muscles)|
|B2 (Riboflavin)||Milk, milk products, leafy vegetables, eggs||Involved in the formation of RBC, maintenance of body tissue particularly skin and eyes
Essential for metabolizing carbohydrates, fats and lipids.
|Cracked skin,blurred vision|
|B3 (Niacin)||Meat, whole grain, cereals, beans||Important for nervous system, digestive system and skin health||Pellagra (severe skin problem, Diarrhea, dementia)|
|B5(Pentothenic Acid)||Whole grain cereals and legumes||Part for an enzyme needed for energy metabolism||Pellagra, Dermatitis, Diarrhea|
|B6(Pyridoxine)||Meat, fish, egg, vegetables||Used to build RBC and maintain nerve tissue
Necessary for immune system functioning
|Skin problem, Nerve disorder|
|B9 (Folic Acid)||Leafy green vegetables, liver,||Necessaryto build nucleic acid, which are essential for making new cells especially RBC||Anemia|
|B12(Cyanocobalamine)||Liver, milk, fish, meat||Help build and maintain protective nerve sheath
Needed for RNA and DNA synthesis.
|Pernicious anemia, nerve disorder|
|C (Ascorbic acid)||Citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy vegetables||Protect cellular function
Important for immune system
|Scurvy (bleeding of gums, teeth falling)|