- INDUCTIVE METHOD (BY FRANCIS BECKON)
Inductive Method : In inductive method of teaching the pupils are led from particular instances to general conclusion. Concrete examples are given and with their help students are helped to arrive at certain conclusion and principles. In this method, the child is led to discover truth for himself. Inductive method is a very suitable method for the teaching of Sciences, Mathematics and Grammar.
- From particular to general
- From Concrete to extract
- From examples to rules
- From Non to unknown
- Examples or Activities
- Testing and Verification or Application
Merits of Inductive Method :
- This method helps to develop Scientific attitude among students.
- Knowledge is self acquired and it soon transformed into wisdom.
- Inductive method is a Scientific method and helps to develop scientific mindedness.
- This method is logical as well as psychological. Learning by doing is the basis of this method.
- It develops critical thinking and habit of keen observation.
- Inductive method is not good in the case of lengthy conclusions. Moreover, it is said that the pupils might not be able to active at complete generalization.
- The method is very show and lengthy.
- It is not possible to apply this method in solving and understanding of all the topics of science.
- It is lengthy and time-consuming method.
- The method can be considered complete and perfect if the conclusions are verified through deductive method.”
- DEDUCTIVE METHOD (BY ARISTOTLE)
Deductive Method: Deductive method is reverse of inductive method. In this method rules generalizations and principles are provided to find students and then they are asked to verify them with the help of particular examples: The teacher’s work is much simplified by giving a rule and asking the pupils to verify it by application to several concrete examples.
- From general to particular
- From abstract to concrete
- From rules to examples.
- Rule on Definition
- Experiment examples
- Testing and Verification or Application.
- This method is very suitable for gifted children.
- Students get ready-made material.
- The teacher’s work is simplified. He gives general principles and the students verify them.
- It is a time saving method since the students will not have to go through the analysis or explanation to crave out a universal truth.
- It is a speedy process and the syllabi can be easily covered.
Demerits and Limitations:
- This method is rather unnatural and unpsychological since the children do not find out the facts or principles themselves.
- The method doesn’t impart training in Scientific method.
- This method does not help to develop scientific attitude.
- The method fails to develop self-confidence and initiative in the students.
- This method encourages memorization of facts, which are soon forgotten.
- PROJECT METHOD (BY W.H. KILPATRICK)
This Method was exponent by Kilpatrick in 1918 but based on the views of John Dewey, his professor. The Pragmatists find it very applicable. It is experience centred teaching method and evolves social tendency. The main focus of Kilpatrick was to socialize a child. It is useful to achieve cognitive and affective objectives. It is linked with life situations. Kilpatrick, William, “A project is a whole hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment.”
“Project-is problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting”- Professor Stevenson.
A project has the following characteristics :
- A project is purposeful activity.
- A project is a real-life activity.
- A project is an activity in a natural setting.
- A project is a problem – centred activity.
- A project is an activity in a social settings.
Various steps in a project
Along the most important steps involved in a project:
- Providing a situation
- Choosing the project
- Planning the project
- Executing the project
- Evaluating the project and
- Recording the project
Merits of the Project Method :
- Based on the level of learning : It is in accordance with the following psychological laws of learning (given by E.L. Thorndike)
(a) The law of readiness : According to this law, we learn most when our minds are ready to receive. The project Method prepares the mind of the students by providing them with suitable situation.
(b) The law of effect: This law states that if learning is to be effective and fruitful, it must be accompanied by satisfaction and – happiness. The students derive immense pleasure when they manipulate their own activities.
(c) The law of exercise: This law states that if learning is to be must be practised. The Project Method affords many opportunities to the students to learn by doing.
- Related with life.
- Correlation with Other Subjects.
- Training for a Democratic way of life.
- Training in Citizenship.
Demerits and Limitations:
- Learning is achieved imparts note as whole.
- Neglect of Intellectual work.
- Upsetting of the Time-Table
- Neglect of Drill work.
- Lack of Competent Teachers.
- PROBLEM – SOLVING METHOD (BY SOCRATIC & SAINT THOMAS)
Problem-solving behaviour occurs in novel or difficult situations in which a solution is not obtainable by the habitual methods of applying concepts and principles derived from past experience in very familiar situations.
Steps of Problem Solving Method:
- Problem – awareness or selection of problem.
- Problem – understanding or Presentation of problem
- Collection of Relevant Information
- Formation of Hypotheses or Hunch for Possible Solutions
- Collection of Data and Verification or Selection of a proper Solution
- Drawing conclusion & apply the solution
- THE HEURISTIC METHOD (BY II.E. ARMSTRONG)
Meaning and Significance : The word ‘Heuristic is derived from a Greek word ‘heuriskein” which means ‘I discover’ or ‘I find’. ‘Hence the heuristic, method is the method in which children discovery. and find things for themselves and are placed in the position of discoverers or inventors. This method was first used by Professor Henry Edwards Armstrong of the Imperial College London in the teaching of science. This method involves the strategy of “Trial and Error’ and ‘Invention Technique’.
Merits of the Heuristic Method:
- It develops a scientific and critical attitude of mind the student.
- It raises the spirit of enquiry in the students.
- It develops habits of hard work among the students.
- It fosters self-activity in the students.
- The students learn the art of planning the their programmes.
Limitations of the Heuristic Method:
- The pupil are immature and we cannot always put them in the position of discovers or inventors.
- It is very slow method and it is possible to finish the syllabi time.
- This method is not suitable for primary classes.
- Wrong generlisations may be arrived at and thus a lot of time and energy may be wasted .
- There is great shortage of textbooks written on the same lines as required in the heuristic method.