## Study Notes on Blood Relations

The Reasoning section of every teaching exam includes questions from the topic Blood Relations. This topic is considered to be quiet important and very interesting. Around 3-4 questions make up its logical reasoning section. This topic is a scoring one if you are smooth with the understanding of family relations and family tree otherwise it can prove to be messy, confusing and time consuming. Today we are going to provide you with all important tools to solve blood relation questions.

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## How to Solve Blood Relation Questions:

• Family or Blood Relationship means persons connected by relations: Father – Mother, son daughter, brother sister, grandfather – grandmother, uncle aunty, and nephew – niece, brother – in – law sister – in – law etc. The list can go on and on adding members from father’s side and mother’s side etc.
• Questions in Test of Reasoning on Family /Blood Relationship are about the relationship of a particular person with another person of the family, based on the chain of relationships between other members of that family
• Family/Blood Relation Tests are an exercise to test the candidate’s ability to comprehend and come to the crux of an issue from complex, lengthy and unclear data.

Example 1: ‘Ram’ is the father of ‘Kusha’ but ‘Kusha’ is not his son. ‘Mala’ is the daughter of ‘Kusha’’Shalaka’ is the spouse of ‘Ram’. ‘Gopal’ is the brother of Kusha’. ‘Hari’ is the son of ‘Gopal’. ‘Meena’ is the spouse of ‘Gopal’. ‘Ganpat’ is the father of ‘Meena’. Who is the granddaughter of ‘Ram?
(1) Hari
(2) Mala
(3) Meena
(4) Shalaka

Solution: ‘Mala’ is the daughter of ‘Kusha’ and ‘Ram’ is the father of ‘Kusha’. So, ‘Mala’ is the granddaughter of ‘Ram’. Hence, the answer is (2) Mala

Some Common Terms:
1. Meaning of some terms often used in questions on the family relationship are given below:
A. Parent – Mother or father
B. Child – Son or daughter (even if an adult)
C. Sibling – Brother or sister (Including half-brother and half-sister – one parent in common)
D. Spouse – Husband or wife

2. Basic Relationships:
Aunt, Uncle, Niece, and Nephew
• Most English speakers use “uncle” for any of four relationships: father’s brother, mother’s brother, father’s sister’s husband, or mother’s sister’s husband.
Again, ‘Aunt’ in English could mean father’s sister, mother’s sister, father’s brother’s wife, or mother’s brother’s wife.
• Brother’s or sister’s son is called nephew. Brother’s or sister’s daughter is called niece.
• Children of aunt or uncle are called cousins.

3. Relationships Involving the Term – in – law’:
General
• Any relationship term ending with in – law indicates that the relationship is by marriage and not by blood. In other words, in – law will be a blood relative of the spouse.
• In – law relationship terms are always written with hyphens. And the plural is formed on the part before the “ – in – law”;
For example, “brothers – in – law” and not “brother – in – law”. The only exception is the general term “in – laws”, which is always plural.

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Father – in – law, Mother – in – law, Son – in – law and Daughter – in – law:
• ‘Father – in – law’ is the father of spouse; ‘mother – in – law’ is the mother of spouse. If parents get divorced and remarry, their new spouses are called stepparents, not ‘mother – in – law’ and ‘father – in – law’.
• The husband of daughter is ‘son – in – law’; the wife of son is ‘daughter – in – law’. If spouse has children from a previous marriage, those are called stepchildren, not ‘sons – in – law or daughters – in – law’. The person is their stepfather or stepmother, not their ‘father – in – law or mother – in – law’.

Brother – in – law and Sister – in – law:
• “Brother – in – law” and “Sister – in – law” each have two or three meanings as follows:
(a) Sister – in – law could be
(i) The sister of spouse, or
(ii) The wife of brother, or
(iii) The wife of spouse’s brother.

(b) Similarly, Brother – in – law could be
(i) The brother of spouse, or
(ii) The husband of sister, or
(iii) The husband of spouse’s sister

Relationships involving the Terms ‘Grand’ and ‘Great’:
• The relationships of the second generation are prefixed with the word Grand.
• Similarly, for a person, the first generation above him would be that of his/her parents (Father/ Mother). The next/second generation above him/her would be the parents of the parents who would be called Grand Parents/ Grand Father/ Grand Mother of that person. The next/ third generation parents would be called Great Grand Parents/ Great Grand Father/ Great Grand Mother of that person.

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This also applies to the collateral relationships:
For example Son of nephew of a person is called Grand Nephew: Brother of Grand Father is called Grand Uncle and so on.
• The fourth generation relationships are called Great Great Grand. For example, Son of Great Grand Son is Great Great Grand Son.

There are two ways Meena could have a stepsister:
(a) If Meena’s mother marries second time, and her new husband (Meena’s new stepfather) already has a daughter from a previous marriage, that daughter is Meena’s stepsister because one of her parents is married to one of Meena’s parents.
(b) If Meena’s father marries second time, and his new wife already has a daughter, that daughter is again Meena’s stepsister.

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Summary of Some Common Relationships:

 Details of Relationship Relation Mother’s or Father’s son Brother Mother’s or Father’s daughter Sister Mother’s or Father’s father Grandfather Mother’s or Father’s mother Grandmother Son’s wife Daughter – in – law Daughter’s husband Son – in – law Husband’s or Wife’s sister Sister – in – law Husband’s or Wife’s brother Brother – in – law Brother’s or Sister’s son Nephew Brother’s or Sister’s daughter Niece Uncle or Aunt’s daughter or son Cousin Brother’s wife Sister – in – law Sister’s husband Brother – in – law Grandson’s or Granddaughter’s son Great Grandfather Grandson’s or Granddaughter’s daughter Great Grandmother