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Mughal Empire- History, Battles, Rulers & Locations

Social Studies is an important section for CTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the CTET exam Paper II. In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section.

At least 12-15 questions are asked from the History section in the CTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important facts related to the Mughal Empire.

Mughal Period (1526-40 & 1555-1857)

BABUR: Babur founded the Mughal rule in 1526. He was a descendant of Timur (from the side of his father) and Genghis (from the side of his mother)

  • He defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar at Khanwa in 1527.
  • He defeated Medini Rai of Chaneri at chanderi in 1528.
  • He defeated Muhammad lodhi at ghaghra in 1529.
  • His war tactics were very expensive since he used heavy artillery which ended the era of small kingdoms because these smaller ones can’t afford it .
  • He died at Agra in 1530. His tomb is at Kabul.
  • He wrote his autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki.
  • Tuzuk-i-Baburi was Translated in Persian (Named Baburnama) by Abdul Rahim Khan-I- Khana & in English by Madam Bebridge.

Humayun (1530-40) and (1555-56): He fought 2 battles against Sher Shah at Chausa (1539) and at Kannauj (1540) and defeated.

  • He died while climbing down the stairs of his library (at Din Panah) in 1556 and was buried in Delhi.
  • His sister, Gulbadan Begum wrote his biography Humayunama.

Sher Shah (1540-45): He usurps throne as Hazarat-i-Ala, he gained chunar by marrying Lad Malika (the widow of governor Of Chunar Fort).

  • He conquested Malwa (1542), Ranthambhar (1542), Raisi (1543) etc.
  • He issued coin called Rupia and fix standard weight and measures.
  • He built G.T Road (Runs from calculate to Peshawar).
  • He built Purana Qila at Delhi
  • He was buried in Sasaram.
  • He was succeeded by Islam Shah (1545-54).

Akbar (1556-1605): IInd Battle of Panipat (5 Nov. 1956) was fought between Hemu and Bairam Khan. Hemu was defeated.

  • Akbar ended the regency of Bairam Khan in 1560 and at the age of 18 assumed the reigns (kingdom)
  • Akbar proclaimed a new Religion, Din-i-ilahi (1581). Birbal was the only Hindu who followed the new religion.
  • Akbar built fatehpur Sikri, Agra fort, Lahore fort, Allahabad fort & Humayun’s tomb at Delhi.
  • Navaratna:- (a) Birbal (administrator), (b) Abul Fazal (scholar & statesman), (c) faizi (scholar & starts), (d) Todarmal (finance minister), (e) Bhagwan das (mansabdar), (f) Man Singh (Mansabdar), (g) Tansen (Musician), (h) Abdur rahim Khankhana (statesman, Hindi poet), (i) Mulla Do Pyaza.
  • He formed a strong alliance between Mughals and Rajputs which ensured peace in Rajasthan and Northern India
  • When Akbar died, he was buried at Sikandra near Agra.
  • Birbal was killed in the battle with Yusufzai Tribe (1586).
  • Official language Persian.

Jahangir (1605-27): He established Zanjir-i-adal (chain of justice) at Agra fort.

  • He married to mehar-un-nissa, widow of sher Afgan (a Persian Nobleman of Bengal) in 1611.
  • Arjun Dev killed in 1606.
  • He wrote his memoirs tuzuk-i-Jahangiri in Persian.
  • He buried in Lahore.

Shah Jahan (1628-58): He ascended the throne in 1628 after his father’s death. He faced revolt of Bundelkhand (1628-35) and the Deccan (1629-31).

  • Mumtaj Mahal (org. name Arjum and Banu) died in 1631. He built Taj-Mahal at Agra in 1632-53.
  • He was imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb for the rest of his life in Agra.
  • He’s reign described by French traveler Niccolao Manucci.

Aurangzeb (1658-1707): Aurangzeb defeated Dara at Dharmat (1658).

  • He crowned under the title Alamgir.
  • Shivaji died in 1680 and succeeded by his son Sambhaji, who was executed by Aurangzeb in 1689.
  • He died in 1707 and buried at Daulatabad
  • He was called Zinda Pir, the living saint.
  • Important years of his religious policy: 1) Ban on Sati custom in 1663

2) Ban on Jharokha Darshan, forbade music in court in 1669.

3) Ban on Tula dan in 1670.

4) Re-Introduction of Jaziya in 1679

Later Mughals:

Bahadur Shah I (1707-12) Title – Shah Alam I. Aurangzeb was succeeded by his son prince Muazzam who sat on the throne with the title, Bahadur Shah I.

Jahandar shah (1712-13): He abolished Jaziya. He was attacked and killed by his nephew and son-in-law Farrukhsiyar.

Farrukh Siyar (1713-19): He set on the throne of Mughal Empire with the help of Sayyid brothers, the two Mughal Wazirs named Syed Abdullah Khan Barha and Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha.

Muhammad shah (1719-48): In 1738-39, Nadir shah raided India and took away Takhat-i-taus (the peacock throne) and Kohinoor diamond.

Ahmed Shah (1748-54): Ahmad Shah was blinded and deposed by his new wazir Imad ul Mulk.

Alamgir II (1754-59)- Ahmad Shah occupied Delhi. Later, Delhi was plundered by Marathas.

Shah Alam II (1759-1806): The son of Alamgir II, Ali Gauhar became the Mughal emperor in 1759 and took up the title of Shah Alam II.

 Akbar II (1806-37): He was the Pensioner of East India company.

Bahadur Shah II (1837-57): He was the last Mughal emperor. He was departed to Rangoon 1858 where he died in 1862.

Famous Books of Mughal Empire




a) Qanun-i-Humayun Khwand Amir Describe Humayun’s Administration, festivities
b) Akbar Nama or Ain-i-Akbari Abdul Fazal History of Akbar’s Reign
c) Iqbalnama-i-Jahangiri Muhammed Khan History of Jahangir’s reign.
d) Chahar Chaman Chandra Bhan Brahman History of Shahjahan’s rule.
e) Nuriyya-yi-Sultaniyya Abdul Haq Theory of Kinship during Mughal period
f) Futuhat-i-Alamgiri Ishwar Das Aurangzeb’s History
g) Pad Shah Nama Abdul Hamid Lahori History of Shah Jahan’s reign.
h) Sirr-i-Akbar Dara Shikoh Urdu translation of Upanishad.
Download Mughal Empire Notes PDF in English
Download Mughal Empire Notes PDF in Hindi

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