Social Studies is an important section for CTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the CTET exam Paper II. In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section.
At least 10-15 questions are asked from the Political Science section in the CTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important study notes related to the Directive Principle of State Policy.
Directive Principle of State Policy (Art. 36-51)
According to Article 36, the State in this part will have the same meaning as given in part III (Art. 12) i.e., Union government.: state government and local authorities under both of them.
The Directive Principles shall not be enforceable by any court. However, these principles are fundamental in the governance of country and it shall be the duty of the state to apply these principles in making laws. [Art. 37]
(1) The State shall try to promote the welfare of the people by establishing a social order in which social, economic and political justice shall inform all the institutions of the national life. [Art. 38(1)]
(2) The State shall strive to minimize inequalities of income and status among different sections of society. [Art. 38(2)]
(3) The State shall secure-
(a) Right to an adequate livelihood to all citizens;
(b) The ownership and control of material resources of country to subserve the common good;
(c) That the operation of economic system does not result in concentration of wealth to common detriment;
(d) Equal pay for equal work for both men and women;
(e) That the health and strength of workers and children are not abused due to economic necessity;
(f) That children are given opportunities to develop in a healthy manner and childhood and youth are not exploited. [Art. 39]
(4) The State shall ensure that the operation of legal system promotes social justice by providing free legal aid for poor citizens. [Art. 39A]
(5) The State shall take steps to organize Village Panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as to enable them to function as units of self-government. [Art. 40]
(6) The State shall make effective provisions for securing right to work, to education and to public assistance to citizens in case of underserved want. [Art. 41]
(7) The State shall make provisions for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. [Art. 42]
(8) The State shall secure to all workers a living wage, decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities. The state shall also promote cottage industries in rural areas on cooperative basis. [Art. 43]
(9) The State shall take steps to secure the participation of workers in the management of industries. [Art. 43 A]
(10) The State shall endeavor to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. [Art. 44]
For political reasons, the Central govt. has not so far, enacted such a uniform Civil Code.
(11) The State shall endeavor to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years. (article 45 substituted by the Constitution Eighty-sixth Amendment Act, 2002._
(12) The State shall promote the educational and economic interests of weaker sections specially Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes. [Art. 46]
(13) The State, as its primary duty, shall try to raise the standard of living of people and level of nutrition and to improve public health with special attention on prohibiting consumption of intoxicating drinks. [Art. 47]
(14) The State shall organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines. Particularly prohibiting slaughter of cows and other drought and milch animals. [Art. 48]
(15) The state shall protect and improve the environment and safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. [Art, 48A]
(16) The state shall try to protect historical monuments and objects of national importance. [Art. 49]
(17) The State shall take steps to separate executive from judiciary in the public services of the state. [Art. 50]
During British rule, the district authorities, i.e., District Magistrates and sub-divisional Magistrates used to exercise judicial powers along with traditional executive powers. The vesting of two powers- executive and judicial- with a single official is not considered well for the protection of rights of citizens as it leads to abuse of authority. Since Independence, due to government efforts, judicial authority has been taken from these executive officials except in revenue matters. This is what we mean by separation of executive and judicial authority.
(18) The State shall endeavor to promote international peace and security, just relations between nations, foster respect for International Law and treaty obligations and encourage peaceful settlement of international disputes. [Art. 51]
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