English Quiz for KVS/NVS 2016 Exams_00.1
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English Quiz for KVS/NVS 2016 Exams

English Quiz for KVS/NVS 2016 Exams_40.1



Directions (1-6): Each passage is followed by question-based on its content. After reading the passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.


By 1950, the results of attempts relate to brain processes to mental experience appeared rather discouraging. Such variations in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience. Near the turn of the century, it had been suggested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain, taste, and color, might be correlated with the discharge of specific kinds of nervous energy. However, subsequently developed methods of recording and analyzing nerve potentials failed to reveal any such qualitative diversity. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types; however, the proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits.
 Although qualitative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the doctrine was generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view, namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system. According to this, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and there is some evidence for this view. In one experiment, when an electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality for that particular locus, that is, a visual sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psycho-neural correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences.
However, cortical locus, in itself, turned out to have little explanatory value. Studies showed that sensations as diverse as those of red, black, green, and white, or touch, cold, warmth, movement, pain, posture, and pressure apparently may arise through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain was some kind of differential patterning effects in the brain excitation: it is the difference in the central distribution of impulses that counts. In short, brain theory suggested a correlation between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogeneous nerve-cell units conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through homogeneous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimensions of mental experience, psychologists could only point to a limitless variation in the spatiotemporal patterning of nerve impulses.


Q1. The author suggests that, by 1950, attempts to correlate mental experience with brain processes would probably have been viewed with:
(a) Indignation 
(b) Impatience
(c) Pessimism
(d) Defiance
(e) definite
Sol. Pessimism- is the correct word.


Q2. The author mentions “common currency” primarily in order to emphasize the 
(a) lack of differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings.
(b) similarities of the sensations that all human beings experience.
(c) similarities in the views of scientists who have studied the human nervous system.
(d) continuous passage of nerve impulses through the nervous system.
(e) Which groups are not in ethnic competition with each other in the United States?
Sol. lack of differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings.


Q3. The description of an experiment in which electric stimuli were applied to a different sensory field of the cerebral cortex tends to support the theory that
(a) the stimuli presence of different cortical areas cannot account for the diversity of mental experience.
(b) variation in the spatiotemporal patterning of nerve impulses correlates with variation in subjective experience.
(c) nerve impulse is essentially homogeneous and are relatively unaffected as they travel through the nervous system.
(d) the mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined by the cortical area activated.
(e) the manner in which nerve impulse are conducted.
Sol. the mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined by the cortical area activated.


Q4. According to the passage, some evidence exist that the area of the cortex activated by a sensory stimulus determines which of the following?
I. The nature of the nerve impulse.
II. The modality of the sensory experience.
III. Qualitative differences within a modality.
(a) II only
(b) III only
(c) I and II only
(d) II and III only
(e) none of these. 
Sol. The modality of the sensory experience.


Q5. The passage can most accurately be described as a discussion concerning historical views of the 
(a) anatomy of the brain.
(b) physiological correlates of mental experience.
(c) the manner in which nerve impulse are conducted.
(d) mechanics of sense perception.
(e) similar in origin to prejudice against the Jews.  
Sol. physiological correlates of mental experience.


Q6. Which of the following best summarizes the author’s opinion of the suggestion that different areas of the brain determine perceptions produced by sensory nerve impulses?
(a) It is a plausible explanation, but it has not been completely proved.
(b) It is the best explanation of brain processes currently available.
(c) It is disproved by the fact that the various areas of the brain are psychologically very similar.
(d) There is some evidence to support it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental experience.
(e) understood by Oriental people as ethnic competition
Sol.  There is some evidence to support it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental experience.


Directions (7-10): Improve the bold part in each of the following sentences, if needed.


Q7. We have abundant natural resources and all the manpower we need.
(a) those we need 
(b) that needs
(c) we needed
(d) which is in our need
(e) No correction required
Sol.  No correction required. The given sentence is grammatically correct.


Q8. India is so poor that it can’t afford to lose Mondays on account of strikes.
(a) can’t be affording to lose
(b) could not afford for losing
(c) can’t afford to lose
(d) could afford to lost
(e) No correction required
Sol.  Write ‘afford to lose’.


Q9. The leader repeatedly mentioned that his mission was not by merely to achieve freedom.
(a) to more achieving
(b) merely to achieve
(c) for merely to achieve
(d) in order for achieving
(e), No correction required 
Sol.  Write ‘merely to achieve’.


Q10. The advocate declared in the court that his client has prepared to surrender.
(a) was prepared to
(b) has been preparing to
(c) was prepared at
(d) has prepared for
(e) No corrections required
Sol.  Write ‘was prepared to’.

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