Directions (Q1-10): Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow selecting the most appropriate option.
The emotional appeal of imperialism never completely stilled the British conscience. However, liberal thinkers throughout the nineteenth century argued that democracy was incompatible with the maintenance of authoritarian rule over foreign peoples. To think imperially was to think in terms of restrictive and protective measures; in defiance of the revealed truths of classical economics. Thus, when the British government took over responsibility for India from the East India Company in 1858, many politicians were conscious of saddling Britain with a heavy burden. In the first seventy years of the nineteenth century, enlightened British liberals looked forward to the day when India would stand on its own feet. Even in the heyday of colonialism, British radicals continued to protest that self-proclaimed imperialists, however honourable their motives, would place fait accompli before the country and commit blunders of incalculable consequence. The danger, they felt, was all the greater because British foreign policy still remained a stronghold of the aristocracy, while that related and persuasive lobby, the British officer class, also had a vested interest in imperial expansion.
It took the humiliation of the Boer war to teach the British Government what it would cost to hold an empire by force. However this fact did not escape Gandhi, the supreme tactician of the Indian liberation movement. He saw what some perceptive British thinkers had much earlier recognised, namely, that Britain could not long continue to rule India except with the cooperation of many sections of its population. Once that cooperation was withdrawn, the foundation of British authority in India would crumble; furthermore, the Indian nationalist leaders were able to exploit the aversion of the British liberal conscience to methods used by the local colonial rulers in combating Indian non-cooperation.
Q1. The emotional appeal of imperialism never completely stilled the British conscience. What does it mean?
(a) The glorification resulting from imperialism never completely blinded the British people to the unjustness of their imperialist policy
(b) The glorification resulting from the establishment of sway overseas did not make the British people complacent
(c) The British people became so dull and emotionally so cold, that the glorification of their country attained through imperialism never induced them to feel proud of this phenomenon
(d) All of the above
Q2. What does the term authoritarian rule mean?
(a) Rule of the authority of law
(b) Dictatorial rule of an aristocrat unaccompanied by the rule of law
(c) Arbitrary exercise of power by officials
(d) Rule having stability
Q3. What according to the author did the maintenance of imperialism result in?
(a) International conflicts
(b) Economic exploitation of the subject peoples
(c) Mental enslavement of the subject peoples
(d) Erection of trade barriers in the foreign trade and other restrictive measures
Q4. What do you think where the revealed truths of classical economics?
(a) Laissez faire and free trade
(b) Allowing only subsistence wages to the workers
(c) Clamping of artificial restrictions of foreign trade
(d) Wholesale nationalization of the means of production
Q5. What according to the author was the attitude of the British liberals towards the British imperialist and colonial policy?
(a) One of active cooperation
(b) One of only verbal co-operation
(c) One of total indifference
(d) One of repeated protests
Direction (Q6-10): Choose the one which best expresses the meaning of the given word: