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Crop Production and Management : Download Science Study Notes FREE PDF For all Teaching Exam

In many teaching exams including REET 2021 STET 2021 etc. Science may be an interesting subject having 15 questions of Science content and 15 questions of Science Pedagogy in REET and other State TET Exams. Science comprising of various branches of studies like chemistry, physical science, and life science.

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Crop Production and Management

Crop Production and Management

  • In order to provide food to our growing population, we need to adopt certain agricultural practices.
  • The same kind of plants grown and cultivated at a place constitute a crop.
  • In India, crops can be broadly categorized into two types based on seasons – rabi and Kharif crops.
  • It is necessary to prepare the soil by tilling and leveling. Ploughs and levelers are used for this purpose.
  • Sowing of seeds at appropriate depths and distances gives a good yield. A good variety of seeds are sown after the selection of healthy seeds. Sowing is done by seed drills.
  • Soil needs replenishment and enrichment through the use of organic manure and fertilizers. The use of chemical fertilizers has increased tremendously with the introduction of new crop varieties.
  • Preparation of Soil :
  1. Few inches of the topsoil are loosened and turned plowing/tilling.
  2. Weeds are removed from the soil before sowing the seeds.
  3. Plowed field has big soil pieces (crumbs) which are broken by planks.
  4. The field is leveled for sowing.


  • Supply of water to crops at appropriate intervals is called irrigation.
  • Weeding involves the removal of unwanted and uncultivated plants called weeds.
  • Harvesting is the cutting of the mature crop manually or by machines.
  • Separation of the grains from the chaff is called threshing.
  • Proper storage of grains is necessary to protect them from pests and microorganisms.
  • Food is also obtained from animals for which animals are reared. This is called animal husbandry.
  • Fertiliser : The inorganic compounds containing nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. They are made in the factories. Example : Urea, ammonium sulphate, potash, etc.
  • Cultivator : Used for ploughing the soil and is driven by a tractor. This helps to save time and labour.
  • Hoe : Used for loosening the soil and for removing weeds.
  • Irrigation : Supplying of water to the crop plants from the wells, canals or water reservoirs.

Method of Irrigation :

  1. Tradition methods of Irrigation : Moat, Chain pump, Dheki, Rahat.
  2. Modern methods of Irrigation : Sprinkler system, Drip system.


  • Harvesting: The cutting and collecting of the matured crops from the fields. Harvesting in our country is either done manually by sickle or by a machine called harvester.
  • Storage: Harvested food grains normally contain more moisture than required for storage. Large scale of storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them from pest like rats and insects. Farmers store grains in jute bags or metallic bins.
  • Manure: A natural substance prepared from decomposition of plant and animal wastes (cow dung, animal bones, dead leaves, dead insects and vegetable wastes) by the action of microbes.

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