The Environment studies is a multi-disciplinary science comprising of various branches of studies like chemistry, physical science, life science, agriculture, health, sanitary engineering etc. Environmental Studies may be an interesting subject having 30 questions in CTET and other State TET Exams. The Environmental Science section divides its questions into two parts: Subject Content which consist of 15 marks and EVS Pedagogy which consist of 15 marks. It is advised is to study the NCERT books from class 1 to 8 of to prepare well for CTET Exam. The current article will give few introductory points on EVS Pedagogy.
APPROACHES & METHOD OF TEACHING ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
“Teaching strategy is generalized plan for a lesson, which includes structure, desired learner behavior in terms of goals of instruction and an outline of planned tactics necessary to implement the strategy. The lesson strategy is a part of a larger development scheme of the curriculum.”
E. Stones and S. Morris.
To accomplish the objective of teaching, it is expected that teachers should use different kind of resources available to them in order to transfer the knowledge and present the matter in a very powerful and effective way.
A. TYPES OF TEACHING STRATEGY
Teaching strategy can be divided into following types –
I. Autocratic Style: Autocratic style of teaching strategies is traditional. The autocratic style strategies are content centered, teachers remain more active and students are passive listeners. The main emphasis is on presentation. These strategies do not consider the student abilities, interests and personality of the learner. There is no freedom for the learner in this teaching process. These are highly subjective and conventional styles of teaching process. e.g. lectures, tutorials etc.
II. Permissive Style: It is mainly child – centered, the pupils largely determine contents. The effective objectives are mainly achieved by permissive style strategies. These strategies create situations for student and teacher interaction and both remain active in teaching. Teaching is organized with the consideration of student’s interest, abilities and values. These strategies encourage the creativity of the pupils. e.g. project, group discussion, role, playing, brainstorming etc.
Broadly, all teaching methods can be divided into 3 categories:
1. Telling Method: It includes lecture, tutorials presentation etc.
2. Showing Method: Demonstration, project, survey etc.
3. Doing Method: Practical, experimentation, role play etc.
B. OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING METHODS
Some objectives of teaching methods are as follows:
• Teaching procedures in Environmental Science should be governed by the objectives of its teaching. The specific goals, purposes and the nature of the contents of a unit determine the methods to be used in teaching.
• Suitable methods are needed for achieving comprehensive objectives of teaching Environmental Science. Method gives training in constructive thinking, reasoning and critical judgment.
• Goal of teaching of EVS should have deeper and extensive participation of students. Besides the lecture or question – answer method, students should be exposed to a variety of learning experiences involving book learning, observation, interviewing surveying, interpreting, reviewing, recording, reporting and evaluating.
• Learning experiences should be geared to the type of growth and behavior changes desired to be brought in the student in order to make him an enlightened, dynamic, productive and democratic citizen.
C. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TEACHING METHOD
There are various characteristics of good teaching. These are given below:
1. Group Related Experiences and Activities: A good method particularly designed to produce changes’ in terms of knowledge, understanding, habits, attitudes, skills and behavior of the students.
2. Scope for Creative Expression: A good method should provide scope for the creative expression of the child’s individuality.
3. Interests in Content: A good method should rouse a large range of interests in the minds of the students.
4. Shift in Emphasis: A good method should shift emphasis from verbalism and memorization to learning.
5. Training in Self–Study: A good method should train the students in the techniques of self – study and the meth acquiring knowledge through personal effort.
6. Stimulation and Awakening Interest in Study: A good method should stimulate the desire for further study and exploration. A good method should awaken interests in the materials and techniques of Environment Science.
D. TYPES OF APPROACH:
Various approaches are used in teaching learning process. These are given below
• Conceptual Approach: In this approach, things are learnt in very detailed form regarding its mechanism, application etc. After the learning, one will be able to reduce the detail form into abstract form. Such approach of learning is called conceptual approach.
• Process Approach: In this approach, different skill is used in order to learn new things. The skill to be used will depend on the things which is to be learnt. All the skills are helpful as well as useful for better understanding of matter.
• Integrated Approach: Integrated approach includes both conceptual approach and process approach Integrated approach will lead to better learning in child.
• Activity Approach: In this approach, new things can be learnt by the way of activity. It is the best method for learning as this involves all cognitive, effective and psycho-motor domain.
Other different methods of teaching environment science are:
1. Lecture method
2. Discussion method
3. Project method
4. Source method
5. Supervised study
E. NEED OF MODERN METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE:
• To make the subject interesting, and living, the teacher should use permutations and combinations of methods, devices and techniques. e.g. to lend color to class teaching, he may use lecture or discussion method or a combination of these two.
• Different lessons or units should be taught by different methods of teaching. It can be very monotonous to use the same methods for every circumstance. To create and maintain the interest and avoid monotony, children should be exposed to varied experiences.
No single method can be the best for all situations and or all teachers and pupils. The suitable method should emerge out of the abundance of information and skill of the teacher.
Now Answer These Questions:
Q1. Which of the following is not true about integrated approach of EVS?
(a) Comprehend relationship between natural, social and cultural environment
(b) It is theme based
(c) Encouraging retention of maximum information
(d) It is suggestive and not prescriptive
Q2. Upon which of the following factors selection of a method of teaching learning process does not depend ?
(a) Availability of resources
(b) The school’s philosophy
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of these
Sol. Integrated approach of EVS aims at comprehending relationship between natural, social and cultural environment, theme based to allow for connected and inter related understanding and has a suggestive format to trigger thinking in new directions except memorizing information children cannot understand
Sol. Selection of a teaching-learning method depends upon various factors such as concept, prior learning experience of children and availability of resources. It does not depend on the school’s philosophy. It is necessary for a teacher to first interact with and identify the prior experience of students on the concept he/she is going to teach and then select the most apt method/approach to build further on that concept with the available resources.