Social Studies is an important section for CTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the CTET exam Paper II. In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section.
At least 10-15 questions are asked from the Geography section in the CTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important study Notes related to the Agriculture in India.
AGRICULTURE IN INDIA
In India around 70% of the population earns its livelihood from agriculture. India’s geographical condition is unique for agriculture. There are plain areas, fertile soil, long growing season and wide variation in climate condition.
Types of Farming in India
The country has Himalayan mountain ranges extending from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the North – East.
India has one of the largest plain areas of the world in the form of Indo – Ganga plain. Apart from variation in landform, the country has varieties of climatic condition, and soil types. Some of the major types of farming are discussed below.
- Subsistence and commercial farming
Majority of farmers in India practice subsistence farming. This means farming for own consumption. In this type of farming, landholdings are small and fragmented, Cultivation techniques are primitive and simple. In this farming, farmers mostly cultivate cereals along with oil seeds, pulses, vegetables and sugarcane.
Commercial Farming is just the opposite to subsistence farming. In this case, most of the produce is sold in the market for earning money. In this system farmers use inputs like irrigation, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides and High Yielding Varieties of seeds, etc.
Some of the major commercial crops grown in different parts of India are cotton, jute sugarcane, groundnut, etc.
- Intensive and Extensive framing
The basic difference between these two types of farming is the amount of production per unit of land. In comparison with temperate areas of USA, Canada, and former USSR, does not practice extensive cultivation.
When we use large patch of land for cultivation, we call it extensive farming. Intensive Farming records high production per unit of land. Best example of intensive cultivation is in Japan where availability of land for cultivation is very limited. Similar kind of situation can be observed in the state of Kerala in India.
- Plantation Farming
This type of agriculture involves growing and processing of a single cash crop purely meant for sale. Tea, coffee, rubber, banana and spices are all example of planation crops.
- Mixed Farming
It is situation in which both raising crops and rearing animals are carried on simultaneously.
It stands for a major technological breakthrough in India based on
- improved seeds of high yielding verities,
- adequate and assured supply of water for irrigation, and
- increased and appropriate application of chemical fertilizers for increasing agriculture production.
It stands for remarkable increase in milk production and establishment of a national milk grid, removing regional and seasonal imbalances. Among the technological inputs there are:
- crossbreeding of indigenous cows with high milk yielding European breed;
- pasteurization of milk for keeping it for a longer duration;
- collection of quality milk from members in rural areas; and
It refers to big rise in catching of fresh water and marine fish.
It refers to remarkably steady and assured supply of poultry products.
It refers to a considerable rise in the production of quantity of apples particularly in the states of Himachal Pradesh and J & K.
Measured to Raise Cropping Intensity
- Irrigation: Irrigation has played an important role in raising the cropping intensity in northern states where it has raisen considerably.
- Fertilisers: The need of leave the land follow for some period to regain the lost nutrients can be dispensed with using fertilisers and following some other suitable cropping and relay cropping.
Crop Rotation: It is the suitable arrangement of successive crops in such a way that different crops draw nutrients in different proportions or from different strata.
Mixed Cropping: This works on similar principles.
Relay Cropping: This means simultaneous sowing of different crops with different nurturing periods in the same field and harvesting them one after the other.
Appropriate Plant protection: These measures include the use of pesticides and insecticides, seal treatment, weed control, rodent control measures etc.
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