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TNPSC Free Notes History -Pallavas

இந்தக் கட்டுரையில், TNPSC குரூப் 1, குரூப் 2, குரூப் 2A, குரூப் 4 மாநிலப் போட்டித் தேர்வுகளான TNUSRB, TRB, TET, TNEB போன்றவற்றுக்கான  முறைகள் இலவசக் குறிப்புகளைப் பெறுவீர்கள்.தேர்வுக்கு தயாராவோர் இங்குள்ள பாடக்குறிப்புகளை படித்து பயன்பெற வாழ்த்துகிறோம்.


 After the decline of the Sangam Age in the Tamil country, the Kalabhra rule lasted for
about 250 years.
 Thereafter, the Pallavas established their kingdom in Tondaimandalam with its capital at
Kanchipuram. Their rule continued till Tondaimandalam was captured and annexed by
the Imperial Cholas in the beginning of the tenth century A.D.
 They extended their empire in the North upto river Krishna and South upto river Palar.
 The Pallavas were great patrons of learning, Tamil literature was developed.

 The Nayanmars and Alwars composed religious hymns in Tamil. The Devaram composed
by Nayanmars and the Nalayra Divya Prabandam composed by Alwars represents the
religious literature of the Pallava period.
 Sanskrit literature was also developed.
 Periyapuranam was composed by Sekkizhar.
 Avanthi Sundarakatha was composed by Dandin. Loga vibagam was composed by Sarva
 Mattavilasa Prahasanam was authored by Mahendravarman I.
Archeological Sources
 Samudragupta’s Allahabad Pillar inscription tells about Vishnu Gopa.
 Aihole inscription explains about Pallava and Chalukya conflict.
 Kenthoor stone carving by Keerthivarman.
 Kuram copper plates explains about Parameshwaravarman.
 Velurpalayam copper plates explain about Nandivarman III.
Foreign accounts
 Deepavamsa, Mahavamsa is an old historical record in Srilanka written in Pali language.
 Narasimhavarman I won many battles with his ally Manavarman.
 Si-Yu-Ki, the accounts of Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang.
Origin of Pallavas
 There are different views on the origin of the Pallavas. They were equated with the
Parthians, the foreigners who ruled western India.
 Another view was that the Pallavas were a branch of the Brahmin royal dynasty of the
Vakatakas of the Deccan.
 The third view relates the Pallavas with the descendants of the Chola prince and a Naga
princess whose native was the island of Manipallavam.
 But these theories on the origin of the Pallavas were not supported by adequate
 They are also identical with the Pulindas mentioned in the inscriptions of Asoka.
 When Tondaimandalam was conquered by the Satavahanas, the Pallavas became their
 The Pallavas issued their earlier inscriptions in Prakrit and Sanskrit because of their
Satavahana connections, and also patronised Brahmanism.
Pallava Lineage
 The early Pallava rulers from 250 A.D. to 350 A.D. issued their charters in Prakrit.

 Important among them were Sivaskandavarman and Vijayaskandavarman.
 The second line of Pallava rulers who ruled between 350 A.D. and 550 A.D. issued their
charters in Sanskrit.
 The most important ruler of this line was Vishnugopa who was defeated by
Samudragupta during his South Indian expedition.
 The rulers of the third line who ruled from 575 A.D. to their ultimate fall in the ninth
century issued their charters both in Sanskrit and Tamil.
 Simhavishnu was the first ruler of this line. He destroyed the Kalabhras and firmly
established the Pallava rule in Tondaimandalam.

Mahendravarman I (600 – 630 A.D.)
 Mahendravarman I was a successor of Simhavishnu.
 Mahendravarman I was a follower of Jainism in the early part of his career.
 He was converted to Saivism by the influence of the Saiva saint, Thirunavukkarasar alias
 He built a Siva temple at Tiruvadi.
 The long-drawn Pallava – Chalukya Conflict began during his period. Pulakesin II
marched against the Pallavas and captured the northern part of their kingdom.
 Although a Pallava inscription refers to the victory of Mahendravarman I at Pullalur, he
was not able to recover the lost territory.
 He assumed a number of titles like Gunabhara, Satyasandha, Chettakari (builder of
temples) Chitrakarapuli, Vichitrachitta and Mattavilasa.
 He was fond of literature, art and music.
 He was a great builder of cave temples. The Mandagappattu inscription hails him as
Vichitrachitta who constructed a temple for Brahma, Vishnu and Siva without the use of
bricks, timber, metal and mortar.
 His rock-cut temples are found in a number of places like Vallam, Mahendravadi,
Dalavanur, Pallavaram, Mandagappattu and Tiruchirappalli.
 The music inscription at Kudumianmalai is ascribed to him.
 His title Chitrakarapuli reveals his talents in painting. He is also regarded as an expert in
 He had also authored the Sanskrit work Mattavilasa Prahasanam.
Narasimhavarman I (630-668 A.D.)
 Narasimhavarman I was also known as Mamalla, which means ‘great wrestler’.

 He wanted to take avenge the defeat of his father at the hands of Chalukyan ruler
Pulakesin II.
 His victory over Pulakesin II in the Battle of Manimangalam near Kanchi is mentioned in
Kuram copper plates.
 The Pallava army under General Paranjothi pursued the retreating Chalukya army,
entered Chalukya territory, captured and destroyed the capital city of Vatapi.
 Narasimhavarman I assumed the title ‘Vatapikonda’. He regained the lost territory.
 Another notable achievement of Narasimhavarman I was his naval expedition to Sri
Lanka. He restored the throne to his friend and Sri Lankan prince Manavarma.
 During his reign, Hiuen Tsang visited the Pallava capital Kanchipuram. His description of
Kanchi is vivid.
 He calls it a big and beautiful city, six miles in circumference. It had 100 Buddhist
monasteries in which about 10,000 Buddhist monks lived.
 According to his account, the people of Kanchi esteemed great learning and the Ghatika
at Kanchi served as a great centre of learning.
 Narasimhavarman I was the founder of Mamallapuram and the monolithic rathas were
erected during his reign.
 Other names are Maamallan, Sribharan, Srimehan, Srinithi.
Narasimhavarman II or Rajasimha (695 -722 A.D.)
 Narasimhavarman I was succeeded by Mahendravarman II and Parameswarvarman I
and the Pallava – Chalukya conflict continued during their reign.
 Thereafter, Narasimhavarman II became the ruler of the Pallava kingdom.
 He was also known as Rajasimha.
 His regime was peaceful and he evinced more interest in developing art and
 The Shore Temple at Mamallapuram and the Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram were
built in this period.
 He was also a great patron of art and letters. The famous Sanskrit scholar Dandin is said
to have adorned his court.
 He was succeeded by Parameswaravarman II and Nandivarman II.
 Dantivarman’s son Nandivarman III aided by western Gangas and Cholas, defeated the
Pandyas at the battle of Sripurambiyam or Thirupurambiyam.
 Aparajita, the grandson of Nandivarman III, lost his life in a battle fought against Aditya I
of the Chola kingdom who invaded Tondaimandalam. This sealed the fate of the
 Thereafter, control over Tondaimandalam passed into the hands of the Cholas.
 The Pallava rule lasted till the end of the ninth century A.D.


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