OSI Model: In the field of computer architecture, the OSI model is considered the basic of computer architecture, which was adopted in the 1980s. If any computer science student wants to comment about computer architecture and networking and its functions and features, then it is necessary to read in the context of OSI model and TCP/IP model.
If you also want to get information regarding Open System Interconnection Model, then stay with us till the end of today’s article, because in today’s article, we will inform you all the important information regarding it.
OSI model is known as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. It is a conceptual framework for understanding and designing computer network architectures. OSI consists of seven layers, each of which is responsible for a specific set of features. We have listed a few features below-
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The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model and TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) model are both widely used models for network communication. While both models describe the process of data communication, there are some differences between them.
Here are some comparisons between the OSI and TCP/IP models:
The OSI model improves network interoperability by providing a standardized framework for network communication. It allows different devices and networks to communicate with each other by ensuring that each layer has a specific function and communicates with the corresponding layer on the receiving device.
This Model enables different vendors to create products that are compatible with each other and allows for easy communication between different networks. moreover, the OSI model encourages the use of open standards, which further improves interoperability.
Here’s a brief overview of the role of each layer in the OSI model:
|Physical Layer[It is responsible for transmitting raw bitstream over a physical medium such as copper wires, fiber optic cables, or radio frequencies.]||Data Link Layer[It is responsible for dividing the data into frames and providing reliable transmission of data over a local network.]|
|Network Layer[It is responsible for routing data across multiple networks, using logical addressing and routing protocols, regardless of the underlying physical network topology.]||Transport Layer[It is responsible to provides end-to-end reliable delivery of data between applications running on different hosts.]|
|Session Layer[It is responsible for managing the communication session between applications running on different hosts.]||Presentation Layer[It is responsible for data representation and conversion.]|
|Application Layer[It is responsible for providing services to applications for accessing the network.]|
Data is transmitted through the OSI model layers by using a process called encapsulation. Each layer adds a header to the data it receives from the layer above it, which includes information about the protocol being used and the destination address.
Then the data is passed down to the next layer, which adds its own header and passes it down to the next layer, and so on; Now, it reaches the Physical layer. The Physical layer transmits the data as raw bits over the network. On the receiving end, each layer removes its header and passes the data up to the layer above it until it reaches the Application layer.
Common network issues based on the OSI model can be categorized by the layer they occur in.
One of the main limitations of the OSI model is that it is overly complex and has too many layers, which can make it difficult to implement in practice.
The OSI model is not widely used in practice, as it was developed in the 1980s and was quickly overtaken by the TCP/IP model, which is simpler and more practical.
Another criticism of the OSI model is that it does not adequately address security concerns, which have become increasingly important in modern networks.
Finally, some critics argue that the OSI model is too theoretical and does not provide practical guidance for network designers and administrators.
The OSI model is a conceptual framework that defines the functions of each layer in a computer network. An example of the OSI model in action would be a web browser (at the application layer) communicating with a web server (at the transport, network, and data link layers) to retrieve a webpage, with the physical layer responsible for transmitting the data over the physical network medium.
The OSI model consists of seven layers: physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application.
Each layer of the OSI model has a specific function, such as defining the physical characteristics of the network (physical layer), managing the establishment of sessions between applications (session layer), and providing network services to applications (application layer).
Layer 7, also known as the application layer, is the topmost layer of the OSI model. It is responsible for providing network services to applications, such as email, file transfer, and remote login.
The OSI model is used in real-life network architectures as a reference model for understanding the functions of different network protocols and devices.
There are actually multiple sets of protocols in networking, but the most commonly referred to set is the OSI model, which consists of 7 layers. Here are the names of the 7 layers in the OSI model, from top to bottom: Application layer, Presentation layer, Session layer, Transport layer, Network layer, Data link layer, and Physical layer.
TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, which is a transport layer protocol in the OSI model. TCP is responsible for ensuring the reliable transmission of data between two devices on a network. It achieves this by providing a set of rules for how data should be sent and received, including error checking and retransmission of lost packets.
There are many protocols used in different layers of the OSI model. For example, at the application layer, protocols like HTTP, FTP, and SMTP are commonly used. At the transport layer, protocols like TCP and UDP are used. At the network layer, protocols like IP and ICMP are used. At the data link layer, protocols like Ethernet and Wi-Fi are used. And at the physical layer, protocols like RS-232 and USB are used.
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