Categories: Important Question

Constitution of India Articles, Preamble and Purpose

Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is the country’s highest law. The Indian Constitution outlines the framework that delineates the core political code, as well as the fundamental rights, guiding principles, and responsibilities of citizens. It also spells out the organization, methods, powers, and duties of governmental institutions. It is the world’s longest-written national constitution.

It confers constitutional supremacy (as opposed to parliamentary supremacy, given that a constituent assembly rather than Parliament produced it), and its preamble contains a proclamation that it was ratified by the people. The constitution cannot be overruled by parliament.

Constitution of India: Purpose

On 26 November 1949, the Indian Constituent Assembly approved it, and on 26 January 1950, it went into effect. The Dominion of India became the Republic of India when the constitution took the place of the Government of India Act 1935 as the primary law governing the nation. Article 395 of the constitution was repealed by its framers to secure constitutional autochthony. Republic Day, which is observed on January 26, honours India’s constitution.

India is proclaimed to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic in the constitution, which also guarantees its citizens justice, equality, and liberty while working to foster fraternity. At the Parliament House in New Delhi, the original 1950 constitution is kept in a nitrogen-filled case. The 42nd amendment act, passed in 1976 during the Emergency, added the phrases “secular” and “socialist” to the preamble.

Political & Physical Map of India with States 2023

Preamble of the Constitution of India

The preamble states that the constitution of India is a result of the solemn decision of the Indian people to establish a “Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic” and to achieve the clearly stated goals outlined in the preamble. The word “sovereignty” signifies absolute and supreme power. It might be actual or typical, governmental or political, personal or pluralistic. In monarchies, the monarchs themselves held the authority to rule. However, with republican forms of governance, which predominate largely in the modern world, sovereignty is transferred to the chosen officials of the populace.

Preamble of the Constitution of India

Constitution of India: Background

  • A committee known as the Nehru Report was established in Lucknow in 1928 by the All Parties Conference to draught the Indian Constitution.
  • From 1857 to 1947, the majority of colonial India was governed by the British.
  • Since each princely state was persuaded to sign the articles of integration with India by Sardar Patel and V.P. Menon, the same laws were in place from 1947 to 1950 while India was a British dominion, and the British government remained in charge of the nation’s foreign security.
  • As a result, when the Indian Constitution took effect on January 26, 1950, it repealed both the Government of India Act 1935 and the Indian Independence Act 1947.

Education Ministers of India since Independence (1947-2023)

Constitution of India: Sources

The sources used to create the constitution were numerous. The Government of India Act of 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892, and 1909, the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935, and the Indian Independence Act of 1947 were among the laws whose provisions were incorporated into this one while keeping in mind the needs and circumstances of India.

The former Constituent Assembly was split in half by the latter, which resulted in the establishment of India and Pakistan. Another crucial stage in creating the constitutions for two newly created countries is the Amendment Act of 1935. The ability to create and adopt a new constitution for the independent states resided solely with each new assembly.

Constitution of India: Timeline of formation

Here is the timeline of formation of the Constitution of India:

  • Constitution Assembly formation took place on December 6, 1946. (in accordance with French practice).
  • The inaugural gathering took place in the constitution hall on December 9th, 1946. (now the Central Hall of Parliament House).
  • J. B. Kripalani, who replaced Sachchidananda Sinha as acting president, was the first to speak. (The Muslim League boycotted the meeting because it demanded a separate state.)
  • On December 11th, 1946, the Assembly chose B. N. Rau to serve as its constitutional legal adviser, H. C. Mukherjee as vice-chairman, and Rajendra Prasad as president. (There were initially 389 members overall; following partition, there were 299 members. 292 of the 389 members were from government provinces, four were from chief commissioner provinces, and 93 were from princely states.)
Constituent Assembly formed to make the Constitution of India 
  • Jawaharlal Nehru gave a “Objective Resolution” on December 13th, 1946, outlining the foundational ideas of the constitution. Later, this was incorporated into the Constitution’s Preamble.
  • 22 January 1947: Unanimous approval of the objective resolution.
  • Adoption of the national flag on July 22.
    Independence was won on August 15, 1947. Pakistan and India each have their own dominions within India.
  • On August 29, 1947, a committee was established, with B. R. Ambedkar serving as its chairman. Munshi, Muhammad Sadulla, Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar, Khaitan, and Mitter made up the remaining six members of the committee.
  • On July 16, 1948, V. T. Krishnamachari was chosen to serve as the second vice-president of the Constituent Assembly alongside Harendra Coomar Mookerjee.
  • The assembly passed and ratified the Indian Constitution on November 26 1949.
  • The Constituent Assembly’s final meeting was on January 24, 1950. The Constitution was ratified by signature (with 395 Articles, 8 Schedules, and 22 Parts).
  • Taking effect on January 26, 1950, was the Constitution. (The procedure was completed in 2 years, 11 months, and 18 days for a total cost of 6.4 million.)

President of India Powers, List, Eligibility

Constitution of India: Articles and Structure

The longest constitution for a sovereign state in the world is that of India. It contained 395 articles divided into 22 parts and 8 schedules when it was enacted. It is the second-longest active constitution in the world, after the Constitution of Alabama, with roughly 145,000 words.

The 470 articles that make up the constitution are divided into 25 parts and preceded by a prologue. It includes 12 schedules and 5 appendices, has undergone 105 amendments, the most recent of which took effect on August 15, 2021.

The constitution’s articles are grouped into the following parts:

Parts of Constitution of India
Part Name of the Part Articles of the Part
Preamble with the words “socialist”, “secular” and ‘integrity’ that were added in 1976 by 42nd amendment of Constitution of India
Part I The Union and its Territory Articles 1 to 4
Part II Citizenship Articles 5 to 11
Part III Fundamental Rights Articles 12 to 35
Part IV Directive Principles of State Policy Articles 36 to 51
Part IV A Fundamental Duties Article 51A
Part V The Union Articles 52 to 151
Part VI The States Articles 152 to 237
Part VII States in the B part of the first schedule (repealed) Article 238
Part VIII Union Territories Articles 239 to 242
Part IX Panchayats Articles 243 to 243(O)
Part IX A Municipalities Articles 243(P) to 243(ZG)
Part IX B Co-operative societies Articles 243(ZH) to 243(ZT)
Part X Scheduled and tribal areas Articles 244 to 244A
Part XI Relations between the Union and the States Articles 245 to 263
Part XII Finance, property, contracts and suits Articles 264 to 300A
Part XIII Trade and commerce within India Articles 301 to 307
Part XIV Services under the union and states Articles 308 to 323
Part XIV A Tribunals Articles 323A to 323B
Part XV Elections Articles 324 to 329A
Part XVI Special provisions relating to certain classes Articles 330 to 342
Part XVII Languages Articles 343 to 351
Part XVIII Emergency provisions Articles 352 to 360
Part XIX Miscellaneous Articles 361 to 367
Part XX Amendment of the Constitution Articles 368
Part XXI Temporary, transitional and special provisions Articles 369 to 392
Part XXII Short title, date of commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals Articles 393 to 395


Total Coastal and Geographical Area Of India


What is the Constitution of India?

The Indian Constitution, which was approved by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949, and took effect on January 26, 1950, governs the Republic. The Constitution establishes a parliamentary form of government with certain unitary traits and a federal framework.

How many Constitution are there in India?

The 470 articles that make up the constitution are divided into 25 parts and preceded by a prologue. It includes 12 schedules and 5 appendices, has undergone 105 amendments, the most recent of which took effect on August 15, 2021.

Who wrote Constitution of India?

The Indian Constitution was calligraphed by Prem Behari Narain Raizada. He had scribbled the original constitution in a flowing italic. Nand Lal Bose and Beohar Rammanohar Sinha, two Shantiniketan artisans, embellished and decorated the original edition.

Who is the father of Indian Constitution?

The father of the Indian Constitution, Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, was an aspirational politician, journalist, economist, and social reformer who fought against injustice against the untouchables. He established the "Drafting Body," a seven-person committee, on August 29, 1947.

Akhil Gaur

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