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CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2022-23 PDF Download

Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2022-23

The Central Board of Secondary Education has recently released the CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2021-23 on its official website. We have provided the CBSE Class 12  Economics Syllabus 2022-23 in a detailed manner on this page to save the efforts of students.   The students must go through the entire CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2022-23 given on this page and bookmark this page to get all the latest updates from CBSE.

Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2022-23 PDF Download

CBSE Class 12 Economics PDF 2022-23

Class 12 CBSE Economics Syllabus

The CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2023 consists of 3 parts. The parts  given in CBSE Class 12 Economics  Syllabus 2023 are-

Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics

Part B: Economic Development

Part C: Project work in Economics.

check the marks distributed to each parts given in the table below:

Units Marks Periods
Part A Introductory Macroeconomics
National Income and Related Aggregates 10 30
Money and Banking 06 15
Determination of Income and Employment 12 30
Government Budget and the Economy 06 17
Balance of Payments 06 18
Part B Indian Economic Development
Development Experience (1947-90)  and Economic Reforms since 1991 12 28
Current Challenges facing Indian Economy 20 50
Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbours 08 12
Theory Paper (40+40 = 80 Marks) 40
Part C Project Work 20 20


Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2022-23: Unit-wise


Class 12 Economics Syllabus Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics

Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates

•What is Macroeconomics?
Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods,
intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
•Circular flow of income (two sector model); Methods of calculating National Income –
Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
Aggregates related to National Income:
•Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NDP) – at market price, at factor cost; Real and
Nominal GDP.
•GDP and Welfare

Unit 2: Money and Banking

•Money – meaning and functions, supply of money – Currency held by the public and
net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
•Money creation by the commercial banking system.
•Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue,
Govt. Bank, Banker’s Bank, Control of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo
Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.

Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment 30 Periods

• Aggregate demand and its components.
•Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
•Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.
•Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
•Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them –
changes in government spending, taxes and money supply.

Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy

•Government budget – meaning, objectives, and components.
•Classification of receipts – revenue receipts and capital receipts;
•Classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
Balanced, Surplus, and Deficit Budget – measures of government deficit.

Unit 5: Balance of Payments

•Balance of payments account – meaning and components;
•Balance of payments – Surplus and Deficit
•Foreign exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.
Determination of exchange rate in a free market, Merits, and demerits of flexible and
fixed exchange rate. Managed Floating exchange rate system.


Class 12 Economics Syllabus Part B: Indian Economic Development

Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991

•A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence.
•Indian economic system and common goals of Five Year Plans.
Main features, problems, and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new
agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance), and foreign trade.
•Economic Reforms since 1991:
Features and appraisals of liberalization, globalization, and privatization (LPG policy);
Concepts of demonetization and GST

Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy

•Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in
economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India
•Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives;
agricultural diversification; alternative farming – organic farming
Employment: Growth and changes in workforce participation rate in formal and
informal sectors; problems and policies
•Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on
Resources and Environment, including global warming

Unit 8: Development Experience of India

•A comparison with neighbors

•India and Pakistan
•India and China
•Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development, and other Human
Development Indicators

CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2022-23: Question Paper

SN Typology of Questions Marks Percentage
1 Remembering and Understanding:

Exhibit memory of previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts, and answers.

Demonstrate understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas

44 55%
2 Applying: Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way. 18 22.5%
3 Analysing, Evaluating and Creating:

Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations.

Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas, or quality of work based on a set of criteria.

Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions.


18 22.5%
Total 80 100%

Class 12 Economics Syllabus Project in Economics : Guidelines

 The objectives of the project work are to enable learners to:
•probe deeper into theoretical concepts learnt in classes XII
•analyse and evaluate real-world economic scenarios using theoretical constructs and
•demonstrate the learning of economic theory
• follow up aspects of economics in which learners have interest
• develop the communication skills to argue logically
 The expectations of the project work are that:
• learners will complete only ONE project in each academic session
• project should be of 3,500-4,000 words (excluding diagrams & graphs), preferably
• it will be an independent, self-directed piece of study

Role of the teacher:

The teacher plays a critical role in developing thinking skills of the learners. A teacher should:
 help each learner select the topic based on recently published extracts from the news
media, government policies, RBI bulletin, NITI Aayog reports, IMF/World Bank reports
etc., after detailed discussions and deliberations of the topic
 play the role of a facilitator and supervisor to monitor the project work of the learner
through periodic discussions
 guide the research work in terms of sources for the relevant data
 educate learner about plagiarism and the importance of quoting the source of the
information to ensure authenticity of research work
 prepare the learner for the presentation of the project work
 arrange a presentation of the project file

Scope of the project:

Learners may work upon the following lines as a suggested flow chart:
1.Choose a title/topic
2.Collection of the research material/data
3.Organization of material/data
4.Present material/data
5.Analysing the material/data for conclusion
6.Draw the relevant conclusion
7.Presentation of the Project Work

Expected Checklist

 Introduction of topic/title
 Identifying the causes, consequences and/or remedies
 Various stakeholders and effect on each of them
 Advantages and disadvantages of situations or issues identified
 Short-term and long-term implications of economic strategies suggested in the course of
 Validity, reliability, appropriateness and relevance of data used for research work and
for presentation in the project file
 Presentation and writing that is succinct and coherent in project file
 Citation of the materials referred to, in the file in footnotes, resources section,
bibliography etc.

Mode of presentation/submission of the Project:

At the end of the stipulated term, each learner will present the research work in the Project File
to the External and Internal examiner. The questions should be asked from the Research
Work/ Project File of the learner. The Internal Examiner should ensure that the study
submitted by the learner is his/her own original work. In case of any doubt, authenticity
should be checked and verified.

Marking Scheme

Marks are suggested to be given as –

S. No. Heading Marks Allotted
1. Relevance of the topic 3
2. Knowledge Content/Research Work 6
3. Presentation Technique 3
4. Viva-voce 8
Total 20 Marks


Suggestive List of Projects:


Class XII
Micro and Small Scale Industries       Food Supply Channel in India
Contemporary Employment situation in India       Disinvestment policy of the government
Goods and Services Tax Act and its Impact on GDP        Health Expenditure (of any state)
Human Development Index       Inclusive Growth Strategy
Self-help group       Trends in Credit availability in India
Monetary policy committee and its functions       Role of RBI in Control of Credit
Government Budget & its Components        Trends in the budgetary condition of India
Exchange Rate determination – Methods and Techniques          Currency War – reasons and repercussions
Livestock – Backbone of Rural India        Alternate fuel – types and importance
Sarwa Siksha Abhiyan – Cost Ratio Benefits        Golden Quadrilateral- Cost ratio benefit
Minimum Support Prices  Relation between Stock Price Index and Economic Health of Nation
Waste Management in India – Need of the hour        Minimum Wage Rate – approach and


Digital India- Step towards the future    Rain Water Harvesting – a solution to water crises
Vertical Farming – an alternate way       Silk Route- Revival of the past
Make in India – The way ahead    Bumper Production- Boon or Bane for the farmer
Rise of Concrete Jungle- Trend Analysis        Organic Farming – Back to the Nature
Any other newspaper article and its evaluation on basis of economic principles       Any other topic


CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2022-23: Prescribed Books

1. Statistics for Economics, NCERT
2. Indian Economic Development, NCERT
3. Introductory Microeconomics, NCERT
4. Macroeconomics, NCERT
5. Supplementary Reading Material in Economics, CBSE

CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2022-23: FAQs

Q. Will CBSE conduct CBSE Class 12 Exam 2023 annually?
Yes, CBSE has recently announced that from the next session CBSE will conduct annual board exams.
Q. Where I can get CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2023?
You can get CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2023 from this page. To get the syllabus of other subjects the students can visit the official website of Adda247 School.
Q. How many units are there in CBSE Class 12 Economics  Syllabus 2023?

The CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2023 consists of 3 parts. The parts  given in CBSE Class 12 Economics  Syllabus 2023 are-

Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics

Part B: Economic Development

Part C : Project in Economics

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