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Daily Concept Booster Electrical Engineering: Basics of Transformer


Basics of Transformer

Transformer: A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling without requiring relative motion between its parts. It usually comprises two or more coupled windings, and, in most cases, a core to concentrate magnetic flux. An alternating voltage applied to one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core, which induces a voltage in the other windings.

How Transformers Work

It is important to remember that transformers do not generate electrical power; they transfer electrical power from one AC circuit to another using magnetic coupling. The core of the transformer is used to provide a controlled path for the magnetic flux generated in the transformer by the current flowing through the windings, which are also known as coils.

What is a transformer?

• It transfers energy from one circuit to another.
• There are no moving parts.
• There are no electrical connections between the two circuits.
• It usually has two sides, the primary side, and the secondary side. Typically, the primary is the side taking the power in and the secondary is the side supplying the power to a load.
• The most basic transformer consists of two coils on a single ferromagnetic core.

Circuit Diagram:

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Losses in Transformer:

 Copper Losses – related to Resistance of the wire.
 Core loss:
• Hysteresis losses, related to the magnetic field reversing.
• Eddy currents loss which is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material thickness.
• Magnetostriction losses are caused by the physical expanding of the core material and producing the buzzing sound.
• mechanical losses caused by fluctuating electromagnetic forces between primary and secondary windings.
• Stray losses to the transformer’s support structure; -cooling system for the big transformers is typically considered part of the losses.
 Frictional loss is zero as the transformer is a static device.

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